Mitochondrial deterioration due to oxidants causing a significant loss of cell

Mitochondrial deterioration due to oxidants causing a

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Mitochondrial deterioration due to oxidants causing a significant loss of cell energy and greatly decreases cell metabolism. Ames and Harman suggested strategies to assist in delaying the mitochondrial delay, such as: Decrease calories in order to lower weight Maintain a diet high in nutrients, including antioxidants Avoid inflammation Minimize accumulation of metals in the body that can trigger free radical reactions Older adult is more vulnerable to free radical damage because free radicals are attracted to cells that have transient or interrupted perfusion. Oxidative damage increases with age.
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Orgel/Error Theory: Over time, cells accumulate errors in their DNA and RNA protein synthesis that cause the cells to die. Aging would not occur if destructive factors such as radiation did not exist and cause “errors” such as mutations and regulatory disorders. Wear and Tear Theory: Over time, cumulative changes occuring in cells age and damage cellular metabolism. Cells in the heart muscle, neurons, striated muscle, and the brain cannot replace themselves once being destroyed by wear and tear. Excessive wear and tear caused by exercising may accelerate aging by increasing free radical production. Connective Tissue Theory: Also referred to as the cross-link theory . Over time, biochemical processes create connections between structures not normally connected. Several occur rapidly between 30 and 50 years of age. Elastin dries up and cracks with age; hence, skin with less elastin tends to be drier and wrinkled. Over time, because of decreased extracellular fluid, numerous deposits of sodium, chloride, and calcium build up in the cardiovascular system. Nonstochastic Theories: Programmed Theory: As people age, more of their cells start to decide to commit suicide or stop dividing. The Hayflick phenomenon , or the human fibroblast replicative senescence model . Cells divide until they can no longer divide, whereupon the cell’s infrastructure recognizes this inability to further divide and triggers the apoptosis sequence of the cell. Cells have a finite doubling potential and become unable to replicate after they have done so a number of times. Human cells age each time they replicate because of the shortening of the telomere. Normal human cells do not have telomerase. Gene/Biological Clock Theory: Each cell, or perhaps the entire organism, has a genetically programmed aging code that is stored in the organism’s DNA. Slagboom theorized this theory. Theory described as comprising genetic influences that predict physical condition, occurrence of disease, cause and age of death, and other factors that contribute to longevity. Theory indicates that there may be genes that trigger youth and general well-being as well as other genes that accelerate cell deterioration. Neuroendocrine Theory: Describes a change in hormone secretion, as with the releasing hormones of the hypothalamus and the stimulating hormones of the pituitary gland, which manage the thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, and how it influences the aging process.
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