The left by contrast has had a much harder time

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The left, by contrast, has had a much harder time redefining its image and appealing to a new coalition of voters who could propel it into office with a workable ideology and majority. Interest Groups The industrial democracies all have interest groups that seek to promote just about every point of view on just about every issue. As a result, political scientists have concentrated on trade unions, business groups, and other associations that are most visible. Business groups have more influence than unions do. The nature of the relationship interest groups have with decision makers varies tremendously from country to country. Political Protest There is plenty of protest, the angriest and loudest of which comes from groups that feel they are not well represented in the electoral process. Virtually no one who joins such protests questions the legitimacy of their regimes, let alone democracy itself. Presidential and Parliamentary Systems
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The most important feature of the relationship between state and society in any liberal democracy is the way it handles representation between the government and the governed. In parliamentary system, the most important feature is the doctrine of cabinet responsibility to parliament. Executive must keep its majority on votes of confidence. In recent years, few parliaments have come close to being divided. Elections have produced either a single party with a majority of its own or an enduring coalition of parties that are close enough to one another ideologically. The Rest of the State High-level civil servants in the bureaucracy and leading interest group representatives play pivotal roles. According to Max Weber, modern civil services are supposed to be the epitome of efficiency. The accountability of officials is hard to keep because they are elected. This is especially true in countries where the business, bureaucratic, and political elites are so close that scholars speak of them as an iron triangle. Those with the most integrated elite have been among the most successful economically after the end of WW II. The Interventionist State The social and economic changes spurred by the industrial revolution made it more and more difficult to meet the criteria of democracy. People turned to a more interventionist state. Interventionist state provides basic health care and education, subsidized or free education at all levels including universities, unemployment compensation, and pensions and other programs for seniors. Some governments have privatized much of the publicly owned sector.
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