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methodologies, including qualitative studies, to examine the effectiveness of an intervention. Qualitative approaches offer substantial value to the development, feasibility, and validation of nursing interventions.DIF:Cognitive Level: SynthesisREF:Page 3262.Why may intervention research involve the efforts of an entire project team?a.A multidisciplinary team provides the grounding, objectivity, and world wisdom tojudge whether an intervention really has clinical merit.b.Each member of the team carries out a separate research project at a different site, so that the results can be multi-site and more readily generalizable.c.Institutional review boards will not approve intervention projects unless they are backed by an entire team, including representatives from both nursing and medicine.d.It is rare for one person to be imaginative, clinically current, expert at marketing, skilled in statistics, and adept at both quantitative and qualitative research.ANS: DBecause of the nature of intervention research, one may need to gather a multidisciplinary project team to facilitate distribution of the work and a broader generation of ideas. If both quantitative and qualitative data will be gathered during the research project, the team should include members experienced in various qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis approaches. Including a team member with marketing expertise will be beneficial, because the final step of the project will be to market the intervention.DIF:Cognitive Level: ApplicationREF:Page 3383.The presence of drop-down oxygen masks on airplanes represents the process of intervention research. During their development, a prototype was designed and refined. What was the final stage of the testing process for drop-down oxygen masks?a.Testing of oxygen masks was initiated on several actual consumer airline flights.b.An analysis was made of all notes made by the intervention team during meetings.c.Oxygen masks already in use on commercial airlines were revised, according to the original protocol specifications.d.Oxygen masks were tested in labs on human volunteers.ANS: A
Advanced testing of the intervention occurs after sufficient evidence is available that the intervention is effective in achieving the desired outcomes. The model proposed by Forbes (2009) places this type of testing in phases III and IV, where the intervention is compared to standard of care interventions followed by replication studies with long-term follow-up of the intervention’s effectiveness. Stage III of intervention testing might involve a single, well-designed study that indicates a satisfactory ESfor an intervention, but often an intervention requires modification through additional studies. Replication studies ensure that an intervention is refined to create the desired effect in practice.