Dramatic improvement in string instrumentsImportant keyboard instruments: organ and harpsichord-Before the Baroque era, instruments were mostly supportiveoAccompanied vocals, dancing, military, hunting, marching, etc.-In the Baroque era, instrumental music becomes own concert musicForm•No text to dictate form•So dance!•Dance music defined by tempo, meter
Baroque Era (1600-1750)23:03•For concert pieces, contrasting dances combined – dance suitesDance Suite (genre)•Instrumental work with multiple, contrasting movements usually based on dancesMouret•French composer•“Suite de Symphonies” mvt 1 – RondeauRondeau, “Suite de Symphonies” mvt. 1•Form: Rondeau -> rondo: common instrumental form•5-part structure: ABACA•Genre: dance suite•Trumpets!! (intro)Concerto form: an instrumental formbased on the opposition between 2 dissimilar bodies of sound•Solo concerto: solo instrument + accompanying instrumental groupo3 movements: Allegro-Adagio-Allegro (fast-slow-fast)•Concerto grosso: based on opposition between small group of instruments and larger group•Commonly used as 1stmovement concerto (genre) formAntonio Vivaldi•Most influential Italian composer of Baroque eraoHis development of the concertooProgram music “pioneer”•Worked in school for girl orphans, Venice
Baroque Era (1600-1750)23:03“The Four Seasons” (1725)•Vivaldi’s best known work•4 separate concertos: Spring, Summer, Autumn, Winter•Program music: instrumental music intended to be about something else (seasons, love, poem)•Absolute music: instrumental music about music itself, nothing moreoDescriptive titleoPoem provided for each movement to explain what was depicted in itConcerto (genre)•Multi-movement instrumental work for solist(s) + orchestra•Form: generally 3 movements•Standard tempo for 3-movement genres(concertos & sonatas)oFast-slow-fast“Spring” Mvt. 1•Genre: concerto•III IIIAllegrolargo allegro•Mvt 1 - Form:ritornellooRitornello form: alternation between ritornellos (melody that “returns”) and episodesoRit., ep1 (chirping birds), Rit., ep2 (murmuring brooks), Rit., ep3 (thunder/lightning), Rit., ep4 (birds return), Rit.
Classical Era (1750-1830)23:03String quartet (genre)•Intimate•Melodic material•Conversational•2 violins, viola, cellPiano QuintetMulti-movement form:•Form of overall work•Form of each individual movementTypical character of movements (4-movement genres)I II III IVFast slow dance fast (triple meter)Form: Sonata-Allegro Theme & Variations Minuet-Trio Rondo> Sonata-Allegro form (Sonata form): 1stmovement form-most important form-•ExpositionA•Presentation of themes, modulation•DevelopmentB
Classical Era (1750-1830)23:03•RecapitulationA’oFunction of melodies (themes), keysoTonic: home pitchoModulation: changing key, changing tonic> Theme & Variations: 2ndmovement form•a theme is played in original form, then played a number of times in sequence, each time varied a diff. way•no limit on # or type of variations•theme: melody with a structural role in form•Hayden’s “Surprise” symphony, mvt II> Minuet-Trio: 3rd