Another way to differentiate the network and host

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Another way to differentiate the network and host addresses is by using CIDR block notation. With CIDR, the network address is specified by appending a slash (/) followed by the number of bits that are part of the network address. For example, the subnet mask 255.255.0.0 is written as /16 in CIDR notation (the network address consists of the first two octets, or the first 16 bits). IP addresses use default classes that includes a default subnet mask value. The class defines the default network address portion of the IP address. Address Range Class Default Subnet Mask CIDR 1.0.0.0 to 126.255.255.255 A 255.0.0.0 /8 128.0.0.0 to 191.255.255.255 B 255.255.0.0 /16 192.0.0.0 to 223.255.255.255 C 255.255.255.0 /24 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255 D N/A N/A 240.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255 E N/A N/A The IP address 192.168.6.11 is an example of a Class C address, which uses a default mask of 255.255.255.0. With this address, the network address is 192.168.6.0, and the host address is 11. Know that the address range from 0.0.0.0 to 0.255.255.255 is reserved for broadcast messages to the current network. The address range from 127.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255 is reserved for loopback addresses to the local host. Instead of using the default subnet mask, it is possible to use custom subnet masks to define different network addresses. This process is called subnetting and typically uses CIDR notation. A protocol is a rule that identifies some aspect of how computers communicate on a network. For two computers to communicate, they must be using the same protocols. Protocols are grouped into protocol suites , or sets of related protocols, that are meant to be used together. Common protocol suites include: Protocol Description TCP/IP TCP/IP is the protocol suite used on the Internet and on most networks. Nearly all computers today use TCP/IP for communication. The Internet Protocol (IP) is a key component of the TCP/IP protocol suite. The IP protocol is responsible for determining how to deliver data from the sending host to the destination host. However, it does not provide a mechanism for segmenting and sequencing packets in a communication. To accomplish this, IP is used in conjunction with another transport protocol: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) - TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. To ensure reliable delivery of data, TCP requires the recipient of a network transmission to send an acknowledgement of each and every IP packet it receives to the sender. Packets that don't make it are retransmitted. This ensures that the data is delivered reliably. User Datagram Protocol (UDP) - UDP is a connectionless protocol. Unlike TCP, UDP does not require acknowledgements. One of the key drawbacks of using TCP is the fact that its reliability introduces latency. For small data transmissions, such as sending an email, moderate latency is not a problem. However, for large data transmissions, such as video or audio streaming, the latency associated with TCP is unacceptable. By using UDP instead, the latency of the transmission is significantly reduced, with the assumption that an occasional lost packet won't be detrimental.
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