Oxidationreduction reactions reactions that occur

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Oxidation/Reduction Reactions Reactions that occur when  electrons are transferred  between reactants are known as oxidation-reduction  (redox) reactions.  An element that loses electrons is oxidized  and an element that gains electrons is  reduced. Oxidation  =  Loss of Electrons      Reduction  =  Gain of Electrons          An easy way to remember this is  LEO  says  GER L ose   E lectrons  O xidation  
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SAYS   G ain  E lectrons  R eduction       The substance in a redox reaction that donates electrons is the reducing agent.       The substance in a redox reaction that accepts electrons is the oxidizing agent. Electron Donor = Reducing Agent       Electron Acceptor = Oxidizing Agent There is always an oxidizing agent and a reducing agent in every redox reaction.  This is because the total  number of electrons gained in reduction must equal the total number of electrons lost in oxidation.      # electrons gained in reduction= # electrons lost in oxidation Oxidation/Reduction Reactions (cont’d) To determine whether a reaction is redox reaction we use oxidation numbers. Oxidation numbers are simply  a bookkeeping method for assigning electron distribution around atoms in a compound or polyatomic ion.   oxidation number  – a positive or negative number assigned to an atom according   to a set of arbitrary rules    Rules for Assigning Oxidation Numbers 1. An uncombined element has an oxidation number of zero. 2. A monatomic atom has an oxidation number equal to its charge.  3. Fluorine has an oxidation number –1 in all compounds. 4. Oxygen has an oxidation number of –2 in most compounds 
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except  peroxides (-1). 5. Hydrogen has an oxidation number of  +1 in all compounds  except  where it forms metal hydrides (-1).      6.  For a polyatomic ion, the sum of the oxidation numbers of all its            atoms must equal the charge of the ion. 7.  For neutral compounds, the sum of the oxidation numbers of all its atoms is zero.     An  oxidation-reduction reaction  is one in which some atoms change oxidation numbers.  (Not all  reactions are oxidation redox reactions.) Oxidation    the process by which atoms or ions attain a more positive        (or less negative) oxidation state the 
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