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Believed that women were biologically inferior to men.45. Peloponnesian WaroSparta and supporters VS Athenian empire. Athenian empire falls. War weakened major Greek states and destroyed any chance of cooperation amongst city-states46. MacedoniaoConquers greece, king philip assassinated and his son Alexander takes up his dream of conquering persiaobefore Macedonia was a great power, it was divided/weak because:oit’s form of gov’t: had a heroic monarchy and no automatic succession to throne which caused civil wars between everyone that wanted throne
owas divided into 2 parts: lower and upperofaced constant attacks from outsiders from greek polis’s of the south and barbarian tribes of the north47. Philip IIoKing of MACEDONIA because he kicks the Amyntas (his nephew) off throneoTransformed Macedonia to greatest power in Greeceoused his own money to pay for armor, weapons, supplies for soldiersointroduces a new weapon: a team of footlong spears so no one would be able to attack from the frontowas a heroic monarchoUnified Greece under his ruleoFirst time Greeks unifiedoAllowed them to do whatever they wanted internally, but required them to follow him for foreignaffairs48. Battle of Chaeronea oGreek polis’s of the south join together against PhilipoBattle which Philip II was able to conquer Greece and all of Greece is now unified49. Alexander IIIoSon of Philip IIois a heroic monarchowas undefeated in his conquest against Persia and the far east.oHe had achieved one of the largest empire in the Ancient World. oNEVER lost a battleo3 main battles against persia: Granicus River, Issus, and Gaugamela
oUses propaganda to gain supporters in persia. Claims to free the people from persian rule, but leftout the fact they would be put under greek rule.oMysteriously dies at a celebration after returning from his conquest of parts of india50. Battle of Issus o333 BC, 2nd battle between alexander and persians. Good place for alexander to fightoMacedonian army holds and charges, Darius flees and Alexander winsoAs a result of this battle, Persians fled east51. Battle of Gaugamela o3rd Battle, almost a repeat of IssusoAlexander's armies charge, Darius flees. Ends up assassinated by his own men which leaves Alexander the King of Persia.52. Darius IIIoPersian King, did not believe Alexander to be a real threatoAt first ordered Satraps to deal with Alexander, however was a mistake as the satraps cannot move resources as efficiently as the king canoAfter fleeing and losing battles, Darius assassinated by his own men which leaves Alexander the King of Persia53. Hellenistic EmpiresoAlexander III died unexpectedly at the age of 32 and did not designate a successor. Upon his death, his generals struggled for power( Epigoni wars), eventually establishing four monarchies that spread Hellenistic culture and fostered trade and economic developmentogreek cultural influence and power was at a zenith, experience prosperity in arts, theatre, music, education, etc.