Believed that women were biologically inferior to men

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Believed that women were biologically inferior to men. 45. Peloponnesian War o Sparta and supporters VS Athenian empire. Athenian empire falls. War weakened major Greek states and destroyed any chance of cooperation amongst city-states 46. Macedonia o Conquers greece, king philip assassinated and his son Alexander takes up his dream of conquering persia o before Macedonia was a great power, it was divided/weak because: o it’s form of gov’t: had a heroic monarchy and no automatic succession to throne which caused civil wars between everyone that wanted throne
o was divided into 2 parts: lower and upper o faced constant attacks from outsiders from greek polis’s of the south and barbarian tribes of the north 47. Philip II o King of MACEDONIA because he kicks the Amyntas (his nephew) off throne o Transformed Macedonia to greatest power in Greece o used his own money to pay for armor, weapons, supplies for soldiers o introduces a new weapon: a team of footlong spears so no one would be able to attack from the front o was a heroic monarch o Unified Greece under his rule o First time Greeks unified o Allowed them to do whatever they wanted internally, but required them to follow him for foreign affairs 48. Battle of Chaeronea o Greek polis’s of the south join together against Philip o Battle which Philip II was able to conquer Greece and all of Greece is now unified 49. Alexander III o Son of Philip II o is a heroic monarch o was undefeated in his conquest against Persia and the far east. o He had achieved one of the largest empire in the Ancient World. o NEVER lost a battle o 3 main battles against persia: Granicus River, Issus, and Gaugamela
o Uses propaganda to gain supporters in persia. Claims to free the people from persian rule, but left out the fact they would be put under greek rule. o Mysteriously dies at a celebration after returning from his conquest of parts of india 50. Battle of Issus o 333 BC, 2nd battle between alexander and persians. Good place for alexander to fight o Macedonian army holds and charges, Darius flees and Alexander wins o As a result of this battle, Persians fled east 51. Battle of Gaugamela o 3rd Battle, almost a repeat of Issus o Alexander's armies charge, Darius flees. Ends up assassinated by his own men which leaves Alexander the King of Persia. 52. Darius III o Persian King, did not believe Alexander to be a real threat o At first ordered Satraps to deal with Alexander, however was a mistake as the satraps cannot move resources as efficiently as the king can o After fleeing and losing battles, Darius assassinated by his own men which leaves Alexander the King of Persia 53. Hellenistic Empires o Alexander III died unexpectedly at the age of 32 and did not designate a successor. Upon his death, his generals struggled for power( Epigoni wars), eventually establishing four monarchies that spread Hellenistic culture and fostered trade and economic development o greek cultural influence and power was at a zenith, experience prosperity in arts, theatre, music, education, etc.

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