For our cash cash equivalents or marketable

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For our cash, cash equivalents, or marketable securities, we measure the fair value of money market funds and equity securities based on quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities. All other financial instruments were valued either based on recent trades of securities in inactive markets or based on quoted market prices of similar instruments and other significant inputs derived from or corroborated by observable market data. We did not hold any cash, cash equivalents, or marketable securities categorized as Level 3 assets as of December 31, 2015, or December 31, 2014. As part of entering into commercial agreements, we often obtain equity warrant assets giving us the right to acquire stock primarily in private companies. We record these assets in “Other assets” on the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. Equity warrant assets are classified as Level 3 assets, and the balances and related activity for our equity warrant assets were not significant for the periods ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013. 46
Table of Contents Cash and Cash Equivalents We classify all highly liquid instruments with an original maturity of three months or less as cash equivalents. Inventories Inventories, consisting of products available for sale, are primarily accounted for using the first-in, first-out (“FIFO”) method, and are valued at the lower of cost or market value. This valuation requires us to make judgments, based on currently-available information, about the likely method of disposition, such as through sales to individual customers, returns to product vendors, or liquidations, and expected recoverable values of each disposition category. We provide Fulfillment by Amazon services in connection with certain of our sellers’ programs. Third-party sellers maintain ownership of their inventory, regardless of whether fulfillment is provided by us or the third-party sellers, and therefore these products are not included in our inventories. We also purchase electronic device components from a variety of suppliers and use several contract manufacturers to provide manufacturing services for our products. During the normal course of business, in order to manage manufacturing lead times and help ensure adequate component supply, we enter into agreements with contract manufacturers and suppliers. A portion of our reported purchase commitments arising from these agreements consists of firm, non-cancellable commitments. These commitments are based on forecasted customer demand. If we reduce these commitments, we may incur additional costs. Accounts Receivable, Net and Other Included in “Accounts receivable, net and other” on our consolidated balance sheets are amounts primarily related to customer and seller receivables and vendor receivables. As of December 31, 2015 and 2014, customer and seller receivables, net, were $2.6 billion and $1.9 billion, and vendor receivables, net, were $1.8 billion and $1.4 billion.

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