After this, the elicited attributes checked by interviews with a small sample of consumers, ten persons: 5 men and 5 women, aged 20 to 35, have university degrees, which are representatives of our sample. Interviews were based on Triadic Sorting Technique which is the very first step of Kelly Repertory Grid Technique. Triadic Sorting or Kelly’s Repertory Grid is a technique developed by Kelly (1955) with the purpose of mapping cognitive structures. Kelly’s repertory grid is a personal interviewing technique used to elicit the constructs by which consumers interpret a product category (van Kleef, 2006). With the use of this method, Constructs for example attributes of products, can be elicited by repetitively presenting the respondent with triads of products drawn from a large set and asking which two products are alike and different from a third. For each triple group, the respondent is continually asked for “an important attribute on which two products are alike and at the same time different from the third” until he/she has no idea of comparing group items (Bech-Larsen, 1999 cited on van Kleef, 2006). In this research, respondents were confronting with triads of malt beverages drawn from a set of pervading Iranian or foreign brands of malt beverages in Tehran market. Both the packages and transparent glass were on the table, in a quiet room provided by Kalleh Company. Respondents were asked to open the package and pour the malt beverage to the glass. Then, they were asked: ‘in what important way are two of these similar and different from the third? ’ this question was repeated with different
42 statements and also with different set of triads, to elicit the attributes of malt beverage from the consumers point of view. It has been tried to choose the brands that, according to the last market research conducted in Kalleh Company, have the higher market share in Iran, specifically Tehran. Ones that have the 1st to 4th rank in the market share. For the second step , which is elicitation of product benefits and consumer values, in- depth interview with the same sample of consumers in the first step conducted. The technique used in this step is laddering technique. Laddering techniques have become admired as a means of understanding consumers’ motivations for product choice especially for food products. Laddering is a one-to-one in-depth interviewing technique applying a series of directed probes to reveal how subjects’ link product attributes to their own underlying life values (Russell et al, 2004). The basis of this method is the assertion that lower levels involve the presence of higher levels, so that product attributes can cause to consequences that lead to life value satisfaction. The aim is to determine the chain, or “ladder”, of linkages between the attributes, consequences and values in relation to product choices made (Reynolds and Gutman, 1988 cited on Baker, 2002).
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- Fall '19