iii 1 Preoperational 2 to 7 years i Use of language ii Describe people events

Iii 1 preoperational 2 to 7 years i use of language

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iii)1.Preoperational2 to 7 yearsi)Use of languageii)Describe people, events, and feelingsiii)Use symbols in play, pretendiv)Egocentric thoughtWay of thinking in which the child views the world entirely from his or her own perspectiveOne.v)Everyone shares the same perspective and knowledgevi)Principle of ConversationUnderstanding that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement of physical appearance of objectsOne.vii)2.Concrete operational7 to 12 yearsi)Mastery of the principle of conservationii)Logical thoughtsiii)Loss of egocenterismiv)3.Formal operational12 years to adulthoodi)New kind of thinkingAbstractOne.FormalTwo.ii)4.
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FormalTwo.LogicalThree.Makes use of logical techniques to resolve problemsiii)Information-Processing ApproachesInformation processingThe way in which people take in, use, and store information, account for cognitive developmentMetacognitionAwareness and understanding of one's own cognitive processesInvolves planning, monitoring, and revising of cognitive strategiesVygotskyCulture in which we are raised affects our cognitive developmentCannot understand cognitive development without taking into account the social aspects of learningZone of proximal development (ZPD)Gap between what children already are able to accomplish on their own and what they are not quite ready to do by themselvesScaffoldingProvides support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growthAdolescence: Becoming an AdultAdolescenceDevelopmental stage between childhood and adulthood-Biological change takes place as attain sexual and physical maturity-Physiological changes, important social, emotional, and cognitive changes occur in the pursuit of independence and moving towards adulthood-Physical Development5 inches in one yearPhysical changes that occur at the start of adolescence result largely from a surge in levels of growth hormonePubertyPeriod at which maturation of the sexual organs occursGirlsAge 11 or 12 for girls, when periods startAverage age at which adolescents reach sexual maturity has been decreasing over the last century
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been decreasing over the last centurySexual attractionBegins even before the maturation of sexual organs around age 10BoysSpermarcheFirst ejaculationOccurs around the age of 13Age of when puberty begins has implications for the way adolescents feel about themselvesKohlberg's Theory of Moral DevelopmentPeople pass through a series of stages in the evolution of their sense of justicePass through stages in reasoning they use to make moral judgmentsChanges in moral reasoning can be understood best as three-level sequenceCan't reach the highest level until age 13Level 1:Preconventional MoralityAvoidance of punishments and desire for rewardsLevel 2:Conventional MoralityBehave in ways that will win the approval of othersLevel 3:Postconventional MoralityBroad principles of morality that should govern out actionsMore critical than particular laws in a society
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