21. Compositiona.Abilities of members i.Simper vs. complex task1.High ability teams do better in more challenging tasks2.Smart team leaders help less intelligent members
b.Personalityi.Big 5 personality model are relevant to team effectivenessii.Conscientiousness and openness perform betteriii.Agreeableness mattersc.Allocating rolesi.Diversity of skillii.Managers need to understand strengths and allocate work assignments accordinglyd.Diversityi.Positive effects depend of situation 1.Leadership can provide a common goal, the teams can be creative2.Cultural diversity is an asset for tasks that require a wide set of viewpoints but also provide difficultiese.Size of teams i.5-9 members, anything beyond that problems can ariseii.small is important for group effectivenessf.Member preferencesi.Not everyone likes teamworkmembers should be selected based on them wanted to be a part of that team 22. Processa.Common plan and purposei.Teams that establish a clear knowledge of what they are trying to accomplish and have a plan to do it are more effectiveii.Reflectivity: reflecting on and adjusting master plan when necessaryb.Specific, measurable goals i.Important for motivational spirt ii.Specific goals energize team, facilitate communication, and maintain focus on result c.Team efficacyi.Small successesii.Trainingiii.Team believes they can complete the taskd.Mental modes—team members knowledge and beliefs about how the work gets done by the team i.Organized mental representations of the ep elements within a team’s environment, shared by members e.Conflict levels i.Relationship conflict—tends to be dysfunctional, arise because of interpersonal difference, tension and animosity between members ii.Task conflict – disagreements of what is happening and what should be donecan lead to discussions and better decision making, optimal level is in the moderate rangef.Social loafing i.Make members individually and jointly responsible
g.Turning individuals into team players i.Selecting employees who can fulfill their team roles ii.Training employees to become team players iii.Reworking the reward systems to encourage cooperative efforts while continuing to recognize individual contributionsh.Teams are not always the answeri.Can the work be done better by one person? (complexity of work and need for perspectives)ii.Does the work create a common goal or purpose?iii.Are the members of the group interdependent? (success of the whole depends on success of each member). Communication and conflictThe communication process23. Communication a.The transfer and understanding of meaning b.Organizational communication—all patterns networks and systems of communication in an organization 24. Functions of communicationa.Control—important for the hierarchy to lay out paths of communication, informal(peer pressure)b.Motivation – people learn how their performance is and how they can improvec.Emotional expression—social, show our emotions through communicationd.