most groups pressures to conform shape our attitudes or even prejudices of a

Most groups pressures to conform shape our attitudes

This preview shows page 13 - 14 out of 14 pages.

most groups, pressures to conform shape our attitudes or even prejudices of a group in order to be considered a “good member” of that group. (5) Child rearing : The effects of parental values, beliefs, and practices affect attitudes. For example, if both parents belong to the same political party, chances are two out of three that their children will belong to that party as adults. (6) Mass Media : The mean worldview is an example, that is, people who watch a great deal of TV violence regard the world as a more dangerous and threatening place and overestimate their chance of being a victim of a crime. Examples will vary. Add Question Here Question 126 Essay 0 points Modify Remove Question Smokers are told that smoking cigarettes causes lung cancer, but they “light up” anyway. Describe the concept of cognitive dissonance, and explain how smokers who continue to “light up” are able to resolve this dissonance. Answer Answer will include that cognitive dissonance is an uncomfortable clash between one’s self-image, thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, or perceptions and one’s behavior. Thus, a clash exists between the thought that smoking causes cancer and the behavior of actually smoking. In order to reduce the dissonance, the smoker usually does one or more of the following: (1) convinces him or herself that smoking is not really as dangerous as portrayed in the media; (2) seek examples of heavy smokers who have lived long lives; (3) spend a good bit of his or her time with other smokers; (4) avoid any information about the link between smoking and cancer; and (5) reject new information that contradicts any ideas the smoker already holds. Add Question Here Question 127 Essay 0 points Modify Remove Question Describe the four spatial norms observed in North America, and explain how these can affect our interactions with people from other cultures. Answer Answer will include the description of the following four spatial norms: (1) Intimate distance . For the majority of people, the most private and exclusive space extends about 18 inches out from the skin. Entry within this space (face-to-face) is reserved for special people or special circumstances, such as cuddling, comforting others, etc. (2) Personal distance . This is the distance maintained in comfortable interactions with friends and extends from about 18 inches to four feet from the body. (3) Social distance is used for impersonal business and casual social gatherings and is in a range of about four to 12 feet. This distance eliminates most touching, and it formalizes conversations by requiring greater voice projection. (4) Public distance is the distance at which formal interactions occur from about 12 feet or more from the body. When people are separated by more than 12 feet, they look “flat”and must raise their voices to speak to one another. Formal speeches, lectures, business meetings, and the like are conducted at public distances. When two people of different nationalities have different norms for
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