experience working with European counterparts during the NATO intervention in

Experience working with european counterparts during

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experience working with European counterparts during the NATO intervention in Kosovo in 1999 (European allies’ reportedly rejected bombing targets proposed by U.S. commanders) was a key factor behind the U.S. decision to conduct initial military operations in Afghanistan outside the NATO command structure.35Some have argued that ad hoccoalitions of like-minded allies under unified U.S. command could be more desirable than working within established NATO structures.Heightened risks to U.S. forces.Some critics argue that the Article 5 commitment to defend a NATO ally in the event of an attack could draw the United States into a conflict that it might otherwise avoid. Others note that Article 5 commits an ally to respond to an attack by “taking such action as it deems necessary.” Continued European dependence. Some critics contend that European allies’ dependence on the U.S. security guarantee limits their incentive to invest in defense 34CRS In Focus IF10930, U.S.-EU Trade and Investment Ties: Magnitude and Scope, by Shayerah Ilias Akhtar. 35Stanley R. Sloan, Defense of the West: NATO, The European Union and the Transatlantic Bargain, 2016, p. 204.
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Assessing NATO’s ValueCongressional Research Service 14 capabilities that would make them more capable partners for the United States. At the same time, President Trump’s criticisms of NATO and individual allies have caused some in Europe to question the United States’ continued reliance as a security partner.36Provoking Russia. Some critics of NATO argue that NATO’s post-Cold War enlargement to include former members of the Warsaw Pact and the Baltic states represented an unnecessary and counter-productive provocation of Russia and ensured long-term rivalry between Russia and “the West.” A negative budgetary impact.U.S membership in NATO carries with it certain financial commitments, including annual contributions to NATO’s Common Fund (about $570 million in 2018). The U.S. missile defense capability in Europe is also under NATO command, and the United States contributes an estimated $800 million annually to additional NATO capabilities such as Allied Ground Surveillance and strategic airlift.37Although the United States could potentially reduce its military footprint in Europe, analysts point out that without a reduction in overall U.S. force structure, the Department of Defense would still cover the costs of redeployed personnel. Additionally, as noted above, U.S. military bases in Europe offer strategic and logistical advantages beyond enabling U.S. commitments to NATO. 36Tessa Berenson, “Europe Worries as President Trump Heads to NATO Summit,” Time, July 10, 2018. 37Lucie Beraud-Sudreau and Nick Childs, The U.S. and its NATO Allies: Costs and Value, International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), July 9, 2018.
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Assessing NATO’s ValueCongressional Research Service 15 Cost Assessments of the U.S. Military Footprint in Europe Calculating how much the U.S. spends to maintain a force presence in Europe is complicated in part by limited
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