Excitatory or inhibitory Cocaine inhibits dopam ine rem oval FYI Serotonin

Excitatory or inhibitory cocaine inhibits dopam ine

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Excitatory or inhibitory Cocaine inhibits dopam ine rem oval FYI Serotonin Attention/em otional states FYI Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) Inhibitory Copm m on: 20% of brain synapses FYI Nitric Oxide (NO) FYI Carbon monoxide (CO) FYI
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4/25/19 32 FYI Neuromodulators also released by axon terminals alter synaptic activity by changing rate of NT release postsynaptic cell response have long term effects multi-step responses may be released alone OR with a neurotransmitter FYI examples – Opioids – Neuropeptides
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4/25/19 33 Mechanisms of neurotransmitter and neuromodulator function 1. Direct effect A second mechanism 2. Indirect effects via G proteins
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4/25/19 34 A third mechanism 3. Indirect effect via intracellular enzymes cAMP effects from Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects. 6th edition. By Duman and Nestler regulation of the general metabolic state of the target neurons modulatory effects on neurotransmitter synthesis, storage, release and receptor sensitivity; cytoskeletal organization and structure; neuronal growth and differentiation. long-term actions of neurotransmitters that are mediated through alterations in neuronal gene expression. FYI slide
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4/25/19 35 Information processing Multiple synapses Postsynaptic Potentials Develop on postsynaptic membranes when ion channels open are graded potentials may be excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs) or inhibitory post-synaptic potentials (IPSPs) depends on which ions diffuse
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4/25/19 36 EPSPs and IPSPs Summation of PSPs (they can be added) may occur one after the other together, multiple EPSPs may push initial segment to threshold Temporal summation
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4/25/19 37 Summation of PSPs: may occur simultaneously in separate locations together may push initial segment to threshold Spatial summation Postsynaptic Potentials are additive neuromodulators and hormones promote facilitation of neurons or inhibition of neurons
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4/25/19 38 Facilitation Neurons can brought closer to threshold by some factor that effects – Receptors Na channels examples – nicotine – caffeine Presynaptic facilitation and inhibition
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4/25/19 39 Presynaptic inhibition Presynaptic inhibition & facilitation Presynaptic inhibition Presynaptic facilitation
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4/25/19 40 Rate of AP Generation Determines intensity of stimulus The h Frequency of AP ± s, the h intensity of the sensation
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  • Spring '18
  • Mark Bolke

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