Epidemiological o Prospective vs Retrospective vs Case Control o Challenges

Epidemiological o prospective vs retrospective vs

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Animal models (rodents, pigs (good to study lipid metabolism), etc.) - Epidemiological o Prospective vs. Retrospective vs. Case-Control o Challenges? Genetics, lifestyle, cultural habits, etc. Nutrient Classes How much body weight is attributed to different nutrient classes? - Water 60% - Lipid 20-25% - Vitamins & Minerals 2% - Protein 15% - Carbohydrate 0.5% (Inorganic) You need a lot of it in your diet You don’t need a lot in your diet 3 Metabolism is constant! Subdivided in: - Anabolism (simple molecules are turned into bigger/storage molecules) - Catabolism (you break things down to access energy) Hormones that regulate metabolism: - Insulin (promotes anabolism) - Glucagon (promotes catabolism) Both produced by pancreas, orchestrate nutrition (we focus on these two the most)
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Water is an Essential Nutrient - Intake by adult humans: 2.7-3.7 L/day o On average, 20% comes from foods - Compare this to the average intake of: o Carbs: 250-350 g/d o Fat: 60-80 g/d o Protein: 50-80 g/d Water Toxicity Water intake >>> kidneys ability to pocess (~0.9 L/h) Hyponatremia = water / sodium imbalance - Can occur from excessive fluid intake, under-replacement of sodium, or both. Typically avoided with urination. - Causes central nervous system edema and muscle weakness Lecture 2: Proximate Analysis (mainly used for animals, not humans) Why look at food composition? - Food analysis – the development, application and study of analytical methods for characterizing foods and their constituents. - Why is it important o Information about foods, produce foods that are safe and nutritious, allow the consumer to make informed decisions - Government Regulations o Maintain quality of foods, ensure food industry makes safe foods with high quality, fair competition between companies, eliminate economic fraud Economic fraud is when the cut corners to make food products, using low quality ingredients, etc.) - Quality Control o Ensure food composition doesn’t change, characterize raw materials (characterizing raw materials ensures consistent products) 4 Functions: - Solvent in biochemical reactions - Catabolism (hydrolysis) - Maintains vascular volume - Nutrient transport - Temperature regulation Overwhelms kidneys: - Unbalance of water to sodium - Your body tries to release sodium from your cells but this confuses your body
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Nutrient Density in Foods - All foods are not created equal… - Caloric content does not predict nutrient content in foods o Nutrient-dense foods o Empty calorie foods - No relation between high caloric content and nutrients, you can have high caloric content that gives you lots of energy but it’s not necessarily good, nutrient wise 1. Moisture (Water Content) Why is determining water content in feed important? - Water is weight and is part of the price of feed - Moisture content plays a role in storage conditions - Moisture dilutes energy and nutrients in food - Important for optimum intake and performance of animals - Allows us to determine how much food needs to be consumed by a certain time to meet nutrition requirements for individual % moisture = weightloss wet weight of sample × 100% % drymatter = 100 % mositure Potential sources of error / limitations: -
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