Collective Security: A plan among nations to take concerted action against military aggression in order to defend international peace and security. Organizations such as the League of Nations, the United Nations, and the Hague Tribunal are passed on this concept as are such treaties as the Kellogg-Briand Pact and the North Atlantic Treaty. Collective Security marks a move away from the old Balance of Power system.commission government: Type of municipal government favored by progressive municipal reformers who wished to replace mayors and city councils with groupsof nonpartisan administrators. First adopted in Galveston in 1901, this plan placed executive, administrative, and legislative powers in a five or six man commission with each commissioner responsible for a particular segment of city life such as police and fire or streets and drains and with each elected in a city-wide contest. The intentions included increasing the efficiency and reliability of government because each commissioner was to be an expert in his area and eliminating corruption because the bosses or machines which had controlled the different districts or wards of the cities (and therefore the council and mayor) would no longer have a power base. This would also supposedly protect democracy by preventing immigrants from selling their vote, but it also reduced the power of minorities who would be regularly outvoted by the majority.
Commission Plan: Proposal for reforming municipal government during the Progressive Era which revealed the Progressive emphasis on order and efficiency. First instituted in Galveston, Texas in 1901 after a hurricane had destroyed that city, this plan spread to other cities across the country as a means of dealing with the problems created by industrialization and urbanization, especially rapid growth, inadequate services, boss government, and corruption. The Commission Plan established a new form of city government that combined executive, legislative, and administrative powers inthe hands of a five or six person body. Each commissioner was responsible fora different aspect of the city’s operation—one for streets, one for fire and police, one for parks and public areas, one for water and sewage. A mayor would have equal powers with the other members of the commission. Each was supposed to be an expert in his area of responsibility, and all would run for office in a city-wide election. The city-wide elections and the elimination ofthe city council tended to weaken boss government and reduce corruption, butthey also reduced the ability of the minorities in the various wards to express their needs and interests, a sign of the belief that immigrants and minorities were inferior and easily manipulated by the unscrupulous. Progressives favoring the Commission Plan advocated it as a means of promoting the interest of the public as a whole by having experts in charge who would act in a disinterested, fair way while providing more order, more and better services,