Test 1 Notes Compilation CogPsych.docx

O wanted to measure memory without the influence of

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o Wanted to measure memory without the influence of meaning or prior associations Tested himself Learned lists of nonsense syllables in order o Recall 1 st item, see if correct, recall 2 nd item, see if correct, etc. o Repeat the process until perfect in recalling a list o Wait for a variable period of time and then test for recall of the lsit using same procedure o Measure: Savings Score = 100 x (Initial repetitions needed – Relearning repetitions needed) / Initial repetitions needed Ex. If it took 10 repetitions to learn a list but only 7 to relearn it, then savings = 30% Review Questions 1) Describe the goals of the Structuralists and one of the methods they employed, Introspection. What problems did Introspection encounter? 2) How did Functionalism differ from Structuralism? What does “Gestalt” psychology refer to, and what are some of its principles? 3) Explain why Behaviorism is considered to be a positivist theory. Why is it considered an associationist theory?
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4) What is Donders' Method (also known as the Method of Subtraction), what are its assumptions, and how can it be applied to measure the time required for mental processes? 5) How did Ebbinghaus study human memory? What indirect measure did he use? What do his results show about the time course of forgetting?
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Cognitive Theories Classical Conditioning Pavlov, 1890s Based on an unconditioned reflex o Food salivation o US (unconditioned stimulus) UR (Unconditioned response) A previously neutral stimulus (e.g. Bell, light) is paired with the US The formerly neutral stimulus is now a conditioned stimulus (CS) that produces the conditioned response (CR) Operant Conditioning Skinner, 1938 Goal: to predict and control behavior Based on spontaneous behavior Method of successive approximation o Experimenter reinforces behaviors that approximate some target behavior Reinforcers o Primary reinforcer: a stimulus that reduces a basic physiological drive o Secondary reinforcer: a stimulus that has been associated with a primary reinforcer “Behaviors that have been reinforced in the past are more likely to occur in the future”
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CogPsych Notes 9.6.17
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Cognitive Theory: Reaction to Behaviorism Classical Conditioning Pavlov, 1890’s Based on an unconditioned reflex o Food salication o US (unconditioned stimulus) UR (inconditioned response) A previously neutral stimulus (e.g., bell, light) is paired with the US The now formerly neutral stimulus is now a conditioned stimulus (CS) that produces the conditioned response (CR) Operant Conditioning Skinner, 1938 Goal: to predict and control behavior Based on spontaneous behavior Method of successive approximation o Experimentere reinforces behaviors that approximate some target behavior Reinforcers o Primary Reinforcer: a stimulus that reduces a basic physiological drive o Secondary Reinforcer: a stimulus that has been associated with a primary reinforcer “Behaviors that have been reinforced in the past are more likely to occur in the future” Some subtleties of reinforcement
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