ISS_225_Lec_7_Politial_Science

4 iss 225 power authority exchange politicsgovernment

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ISS 225 – Power, Authority, Exchange Politics/Government At the center of elite dominance is big business. Elites are both institutions (military, large corporations, private associations) and people (Ronald Reagan, George Bush). Elite theorists maintain that who holds office in Washington is of marginal consequence; it is the corporate giants that always have power. In this theory, the public interest is not approximated. 4. Hyperpluralism Hyperpluralism is pluralism gone sour, a growth in special interests and single-issue groups. Just as it is said that too many cooks spoil the broth, too many competing groups spoil government's ability to govern. Groups are so strong that government is weakened and unable to act. The influence of many groups cripples government's ability to make policy. There are too many ways for groups to control policy. People who adhere to this theory say our fragmented federal political system containing governments with overlapping jurisdictions contributes to hyperpluralism. Too many governments can make it hard to coordinate policy implementation. Any policy requiring the cooperation of several levels of government can be hampered by the reluctance of any one of them. Groups that lose policymaking battles in Congress do not give up; they go to court or the bureaucracies, or the states. The number of cases brought to the courts has skyrocketed. (examples: environmentalists, religious groups issues like school prayer and sex education, business over federal regulations, abortion, etc.) Groups divide government and its authority. Government gives in to every conceivable interest and single-issue group. Single issue groups (abortion use litmus tests to rate members of Congress on the basis of their votes on their issue. Politicians promise everything to everyone. When politicians try to placate every group, the result is confusing, contradictory, and muddled policy--if politicians manage to make policy at all. Policy gridlock results. Hyperpluralist theory suggests that the public interest is rarely translated into public policy. II. Power and the U.S. Constitution A. The Basic Principles of the Constitution: 1. Republicanism: Power resides in the people and is exercised by their elected representatives. Founders concerned about the risk of “tyranny of the majority” -- Mob rule. Originally the House of Representatives was the only directly elected institution: 5
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ISS 225 – Power, Authority, Exchange Politics/Government People House State Legislature Senate Electoral College President Today, the people have a more direct electoral link: People House Senate Electoral College President 2. Federalism A federal system is a plan of government, which divides the power of government between a strong national government and individual states.
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