between servant leadership and follower behavior was found in a multilevel study on OCB by Ehrhart (2004). His most interesting results are the interrelatedness of manager ratings of departmental OCB with follower ratings of servant leadership behavior from the same man- ager. The study showed that servant leadership had a direct effect of .29 with helping OCB and .22 for conscientiousness OCB, thereby confirming servant leadership as a potential antecedent of unit-level OCB. Servant leadership is also believed to have a positive influence on team effectiveness. Team leadership requires being goal directed, being able to handle different personalities within the group, creating a unified commitment, recognition, and so on. These are charac- teristics that are all closely related to those of servant leadership. In a study carried out in a nonprofit organization, Irving and Longbotham (2007) found moderate to high correlations between servant leadership and perceived team effectiveness. The most important leadership behaviors were providing accountability, being supportive, engaging in honest self-evaluation, fostering collaboration, having clear communication, and valuing the members in the team.
1250 Journal of Management / July 2011 A meta-analysis on the role of leadership on team effectiveness (Burke, Stagl, Klein, Goodwin, Salas, & Halpin, 2006) confirmed its importance. Most notably for servant leader- ship was the impact of empowering leadership, which proved to be essential for team effec- tiveness. The primary actor was its strong influence on team learning. Organizational Outcomes Research into the influence of servant leadership on CSR and building sustainable busi- nesses is an area of societal interest. In a book on what he called “small giants,” Burlingham (2005) presented small- to medium-sized businesses whose policy it was not to place high return on investment as their primary goal but rather to emphasize the importance of creating a great place to work, building great relationships with all stakeholders, contributing to the community, and focusing on a high quality of life. Most of the owners of these companies had been influenced by the ideas behind servant leadership. A study into the characteristics of leaders needed to integrate building a responsible busi- ness with the challenges of day-to-day operations emphasized the importance of integrity, open-mindedness, long-term perspective, ethical behavior, care for people, respectful com- munication, and managing responsibility outside the organization (Hind, Wilson, & Lenssen, 2009), all aspects that come close to the key servant leadership characteristics and the medi- ating processes formulated in this article. Furthermore, Jin and Drozdenko (2009) argued and showed that CSR is related to a more organic relationship-oriented organizational envi- ronment where fairness and trust are core values. In line with this, a study of 56 U.S. and Canadian firms by Waldman, Siegel, and Javidan (2006) investigated the relation between
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 34 pages?
- Summer '14