The southern slopes of the range are drained by the

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The southern slopes of the range are drained by the Narmada River, which proceeds westward to the Arabian Sea in the wide valley betwen the Vindhya Range and the parallel Satpura Range farther to the south. The northern slopes of the range are drained by tributaries of the Ganges, including the Kali Sindh, Parbati, Betwa, and Ken. The Son, a tributary of the Ganges, drains the southern slopes of the range at its eastern end. The Vindhyan tableland is a plateau that lies to the north of the central part of the range. The cities of Bhopal, the capital of Madhya Pradesh, and Indore lie on the tableland, which raises higher than the Indo-Gangetic plain to its north. Western Ghats: The Western Ghats (Sahyadri mountains) are a mountain range in the west of peninsular India. They run north to south along the western edge of the Deccan Plateau, and separate the plateau from a narrow coastal plain along the Arabian Sea. The range starts near the border of Gujarat and Maharashtra, south of the Tapti River, and runs approximately 1600 km through the states of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala ending at Kanyakumari, at the southern tip of the Indian peninsula. About sixty percent of the Western Ghats are located in the state of Karnataka. These hills cover 60,000 km 2 and form the catchment area for a complex of river systems that drain almost 40% of Indoa. The average elevation is around 1,200 meters. The area is one of the world’ eitht “Hottest biodiversity hotspots” and has over 5000 species of flowering plants, 139 mammal species, 508 bird species and 179 amphibian species. At least 325 globally threatened species occur in the Western Ghats. The Western Ghats of Maharashtra spread from the Satpura Range to the north, and continue south past Goa to Karnataka. The major hill range of the sector is Sayadhri range, which is home to the hill stations of Mahabaleshwar and Panchagani. The Biligirirangans southeast of Mysore in Karnataka, meet the Shevaroys (Servarayan range) and Tirumala range farther east, linking the Western Ghats to the Eastern Ghats. This range is also known as the Sahyadri mountains in Maharashtra and Karnataka, Nilagiri malai in Tamilnadu, and Sahya Parvatam in Kerala. Smaller ranges, including the Cardamom Hills and the Nilgiri Hills with Doddabetta being the highest peak at 2,670 meteres (8,606 ft), are in northwestern Tamil Nadu. In the southern part of the range in the Anaimalai Hills, in western Tamil Nadu and Kerala, Ana Mudi 2,695 meters (8,842 ft) is the highest peak in India, south of the Himalayas. Chembra Peak 2,100 meters (6,890 ft), Banasura Peak 2,073 metres (6,801 ft), Vellarimala 2,200 metres (7,218 ft) and Agasthya mala 1,868 metres (6,129 ft) are also in Kerala. The Western Ghats in Kerala is home to many tea and coffee plantations. The major gaps in the range are the Goa gap, between the Maharashtra and Karnataka sections, and the Palghat Gap on the Tamil Nadu/Kerala border between the Nilgiri Hills and the Anaimalai Hills.

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