neuron either fires or it doesnt always produces an impulse of the same

Neuron either fires or it doesnt always produces an

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: neuron either fires or it doesn’t-always produces an impulse of the same strength-REFRACTORY-ABSOLUTE: period immediately after an action potential when another action potential cannot occur-RELATIVE: period following absolute refractory period when a neuron will only respond to a stronger than normal impulse+Interneural Transmission-chemical process-SYNAPSE: composed of the terminal button of one neuron, the synaptic space, and the dendrites or cell body of thereceiving neuron-PRESYNAPTIC NEURON: neuron delivering message-POSTSYNAPTIC NEURON: neuron receiving message-SYNAPTIC CLEFT: tiny gap between neurons; messages travel across it to get from one neuron to the next-SYNAPTIC VESICLES: sacs in terminal button that release chemicals into synaptic space
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-NEUROTRANSMITTERS: chemicals released by synaptic vesicles-RECEPTOR SITES: location on receptor neuron for specific neurotransmitters-REUPTAKE: the “recycling” of neurotransmitters+Neurotransmitters-regulate various aspects of behavior-EPSP (Excitatory Post-Synaptic Potential): tell neurons to fire-IPSP (Inhibitory Post-Synaptic Potential): tell neurons to NOT fire-ACh (Acetylcholine): enables muscle action, learning, memory-Dopamine: influences emotion, attention; excess= schizophrenia-Seratonin: affects mood, sleep, hunger, arousal; lack= depression-GABA: inhibitory; prevents random bursts of neural firing-Norepinephrine: adrenaline; “fight or flight” response-Glutamate: excitatory; excess= seizures-NEUROPEPTIDES: protein-like molecules used for communication between neurons-ENDORPHINES: neurotransmitter produced by pituitary gland; produces feeling of happiness, exhilaration-NEUROMODULATORS: neurotransmitters that regulate groups of neurons-Drugs-AGONISTS: mimic neurotransmitters or prevent reuptake-ANTAGONISTS: block neurotransmission-Psychopharmacology-Botulism: antagonist of ACh; causes paralysis-Curare: antagonist of ACh; causes paralysis-Antipsychotic medications: antagonist of dopamine to reduce hallucinations-Caffeine: antagonist of inhibitory adenosine-Cocaine: agonist to dopamineNERVOUS SYSTEM+CNS (Central Nervous System)-brain: enables all functioning; neurons in neural networks to facilitate efficient output-spinal cord: connects brain to PNS; handles reflexes+PNS (Peripheral Nervous System)-Somatic NS: controls voluntary movements of skeletal muscles-Autonomic NS: controls self-regulated actions of internal organs/glands-Sympathetic NS: arousing “fight/flight” reaction-Parasympathetic NS: calms after “fight/flight” reactionENDOCRINE SYSTEM+helps coordinate and integrate complex psychological reactions+Endocrine Glands-secrete hormones into the bloodstream-PITUITARY: “master gland” regulates many other glands-PINEAL: regulates sleep-wake cycle, secretes melatonin (lethargy when it’s dark)-THYROID: control metabolism, secrete thyroxin-Hyperthyroidism: too much thyroxin-Hypothyroidism: not enough thyroxin-ADRENAL: reaction to stress, secrete adrenaline/epinephrine-PANCREAS: regulate blood-sugar levels, secrete insulin-Diabetes: not enough insulin-GONADS
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