*Bases – the hydroxide ion of a metal or of an electropositive element or group. They are a group of molecules that takes up or accepts protons. These are molecules or ions containing an atom with a free pair of electrons that can be donated to an acid; an electron-pair donor. *Buffers – any substance or mixture of compounds that, added to a solution, is capable of neutralizing both acids and bases without appreciably changing the original acidity or alkalinity of the solution *Functional Groups – a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic behavior of the class of compounds in which the group occurs 7.Describe the four types of molecular bonding: Covalent, Ionic, Hydrogen and Peptide bonding.*Covalent Bond– formed by the sharing of a pair of electrons by two atoms
8. Compare and contrast chemical formulas *Molecular or Empirical Formula – only shows the name and number of atoms *Structural Formula – shows the name and number of atoms and their arrangement in space 9. Discuss the importance of water in living cells and systems Water is a major constituent of all organisms’ composition. It governs energetic processes over the planet. It protects the planet, thus, water resists temperature changes. Without water, temperatures would fluctuate greatly from day to night and from season to season. It is a superb solvent and it is involved in making and breaking of large molecules. 10.Describe, compare and contrast the four biological molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids) and their functions.*Carbohydrates– biomolecules composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, in the ration 1:2:1, or simply CH2O. These are important for cellular fuel and for structural materials.