Groups of individuals with common interests that

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groups of individuals with common interests that organize to influence public policy in a manner that benefits their members other groups may oppose war example: economic actors (banks, importers) who depend on peace for commerce and investment democratic institutions may discourage war democracy political system in which candidates compete for political office through frequent, fair elections in which a sizable portion of the adult population can vote democratic peace observation that there are few, if any, clear cases of war between mature democratic states accountability ability to punish or reward leaders for the decision they make, as when frequent fair elections enable voters to hold elected officials responsible for their actions by granting or withholding access to political office democracy promotes norms of negotiation over conflict democratic process is slow, allowing time for interstate bargaining in practice, mature democracies are more peaceful with other mature democracies democracies are STILL just as likely to go to war with non-democracies but when both actors are established democracies, their transparency better allows a resolution of the information and commitment problems noted in Ch. 3 the transition to democracy may increase the probability of war
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democratic peace--spurious correlation? World Politics Friday 10/16: Difficulties: Dependent on member states for troops, funds, equipment, etc. 1. public goods and collective action problems 1. problems with joint decision-making UN is collection of groups and is not clear cut states can say that they can use it in self defense Collective Security Organizations: United Nations Security Council main governing body of the United Nations, which has the authority to identify threats to international peace and security and to prescribe the organization’s response, including military and/or economic sanctions 15 members (including the P5) P5 = The five permanent members of the UN Security Council: the US, Great Britain, France, Russia, and China veto power ability to prevent the passage of measure through a unilateral act, such as a single negative vote any one of the 5 P5 powers disagree, then it won’t happen Security Council pros fewer collective action problems acts with backing of the 5 strongest states cons biased, uneven outcomes UN peace-enforcement operation military operation in which force is used to make and/or enforce peace among warring parties that have not agreed to end their fighting heavily armed impose a peace on warring parties through active intervention peacekeeping operation an operation in which troops and observers are deployed to 1990 was a major turning point for the UN, and played more during the Gulf War, invasion of Croatia
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12 Resolutions, authorizing “all necessary means” to get Iraq to recall from Croatia
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