ii Because this universal law has its source in its own capacity to reason Kant

Ii because this universal law has its source in its

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ii. Because this universal law has its source in its own capacity to reason Kant calls us “legislators” of the universal law. 3. Categorical Imperative – three formulations: a. Never act in such a way that I could not also will that my maxim should be a universal law. b. Maxim means “the principle upon which a person's decision to act is made.” i. borrowing money and promising to repay it is worthless if “promising” is not a valid maxim. c. Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that of another, as an end and never as a means only:
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i. Human beings have unconditional worth, we do not consider our existence to be a means of some further end. We consider it to be an end in itself therefore, we cannot treat someone else merely as a means to some other end. d. The idea of the will of every rational being as making universal law 4. Good Will: a. As Kant conceives of it, the good will is the standing readiness to do one's duty, not because one desires to do so but rather because doing so is one's duty. b. One's duty, according to Kant, can be captured in one rule: Always act only on maxims (or principles) that one could at the same time will to be universal laws. c. This moral rule is said to be a categorical imperative , or a requirement of reason that is binding on all rational beings regardless of whatever particular desires one happens to have. d. Kant later gives another formulation of the categorical imperative, claiming we must always act to treat humanity as an end in itself , never merely as a means to our own ends. 5. Autonomous Beings: a. Because we are subject only to the laws of our own reason, we are autonomous beings with priceless dignity and worth. b. because of our priceless dignity and worth, all persons are worthy of respect. 6. The Ultimate Worth of Persons: a. Rational Beings are designated “persons” because their nature indicates that they are ends in themselves. b. Objects of inclinations have only a conditional worth like a chocolate sundae and are, therefore, called “things.” 7. Realm of Ends: a. The concept of a rational being as a being that must regard itself as giving universal law through all the maxims of its will, so that it may judge itself from this viewpoint (autonomy) leads to a very fruitful concept that of a 'realm of ends'. b. “realm” means the systematic union of different rational beings through common objective laws. i. Because what these laws have in view is just the relation of these beings to each other as ends and means.
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ii. A rational being belongs to the realm of ends as a member when he gives universal laws in it while also subject himself to these laws. 8. Morality a. Consists in the relation of every action to the legislation through which alone the realm of ends is possible. i. This legislation must be found in every rational being. ii. It must be able to rise from his will, whose principle then is to take no action according to any maxim which would be inconsistent with its being a universal law. iii. This conformity is called 'duty' or 'practical restraint'. iv. An action is ethically valuable only if the person who performs it has a good will, or the motive to do the right thing.
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