Plant Diversity The Evolution of Seed Plants.docx

10 ovules the part of the ovary of seed plants that

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10. Ovules: the part of the ovary of seed plants that contains the female germ cell and after fertilization becomes the seed. 11. Gymnosperm: a plant that has seeds unprotected by an ovary or fruit. Gymnosperms include the conifers, cycads, and ginkgo. 12. Angiosperm: a plant that has flowers and produces seeds enclosed within a carpel. The angiosperms are a large group and include herbaceous plants, shrubs, grasses, and most trees. 13. Sporophyte: (in the life cycle of plants with alternating generations) the asexual and usually diploid phase, producing spores from which the gametophyte arises. It is the dominant form in vascular plants, e.g., the frond of a fern. 14. Megaspores: the larger of the two kinds of spores produced by some ferns.
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Amber Holmes-Turner Plant Diversity: The Evolution of Seed Plants 15. Fertilized ovules: Fertilization occurs when one of the sperm cells fuses with the egg inside of an ovule. After fertilization occurs, ovule develops into a seed. Each seed contains a tiny, undeveloped plant called an embryo. The ovary surrounding the ovules develops into a fruit that contains one or more seeds. 16. Phylum Gnetophyta: each Gnetophyta is a division of plants, grouped within the gymnosperms that consists of some 70 species across the three relict genera: Gnetum (family Gnetaceae), Welwitschia (family Welwitschiaceae), and Ephedra (family Ephedraceae). 17. Phylum Cycadophgyta: A phylum of seed plants (see gymnosperm) that contains many extinct species; the few modern representatives of the group include Cycas and Zamia 18. Phylum Ginkgophyta: Ginkgo biloba is the only living species in this group of seed-bearing plants, although the "ginkgophytes" are known in the fossil record dating back to the last period of the Paleozoic Era. 19. Phylum coniferophyte: This is a conspicuous group of woody plants commonly known as the "conifers". The members of this group produce ovules that mature into seeds. These ovules and seeds are found on the upper surfaces of scale structures which often are clustered into "cones". 20. Flower: sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants. The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. 21. Petals: each of the segments of the corolla of a flower, which are modified leaves and are typically colored 22. Stigma: the part of a pistil that receives the pollen during pollination 23. Carpel: the female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an ovary, a stigma, and usually a style. It may occur singly or as one of a group.
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