The performance of resistance exercise in these repetition ranges will strain

The performance of resistance exercise in these

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The performance of resistance exercise in these repetition ranges will strain the neuromuscular system and target different energy systems in several ways, which may significantly impact the degree of the hypertrophic response [4]. The extent of muscular strength and hypertrophic gains following resistance training are universally thought to be dependent on the intensity of exercise, with an intensity of ‘65% 1RM considered to be sufficient to promote substantial muscular hypertrophy [9]. As a result, the use of moderate to low repetition ranges has typically been proven to elicit greater increases in muscle hypertrophy compared to high repetitions [10]. Although, there is a recent body of literature proposing that resistance exercise combined with BFR can promote significant increases in muscle hypertrophy with exercise intensities as low as 20% 1RM [11]. While it still remains inconclusive as to whether the use of low, moderate or high repetitions to induce the greatest hypertrophic response, there is a prevailing body of evidence suggesting that resistance exercise at a moderate range (6-12 reps) is optimal for the production of muscle hypertrophy [12-14]. There are several factors that are associated with the use of moderate repetitions promoting the greatest anabolic response; these primarily include metabolic stress, increase fibre recruitment and systemic hormonal production. These factors will be further discussed in greater detail in this literature review. Volume Exercise volume can be defined as the product of total sets, repetitions and load complete in a training session. With respect to gains in muscle hypertrophy, multiple-set, higher-volume protocols have consistently proven to be far superior compared to lower-volume, single set protocols [15, 16]. While it is not entirely clear as to why higher-volume workloads is superior in promoting muscular hypertrophy, it is suggested that a combination of several factors such as greater total mechanical tension, metabolic stress and muscle
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damage are implicated [4]. High-volume (body-building) type schemes, have demonstrated to produce significant glycolytic activity which has been shown to maximise the acute anabolic hormonal response to a greater extent than low-volume (strength based) schemes [17, 18]. The increase in metabolic stress has been associated with the augmentation of anabolic hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and testosterone, therefore increasing the potential for downstream cellular interactions to create a hypertrophic effect on muscle tissue [19]. Exercise selection There is evidence to support that the selection of exercise may play a role in maximising the hypertrophic response. Programs that primarily incorporate multi-joint exercises tend to recruit greater amounts of muscle mass, which has an impact on the anabolic hormonal response to resistance training [4, 20]. It has been demonstrated that the magnitude in the elevation of anabolic hormones post-exercise is associated with the degree of muscle mass involved, with multi-joint
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