The underlying assumption, or the reason for the lack of change, has been that “the school as an
institution was headed in the right direction except that it needed to exert more effort toward its
previous goals and make content and instruction more palatable to students. It was taken for
granted that there was nothing wrong in the schools and it was the student” and not the schools
“that needed to be changed.”
Although the research in education may be impressive in quantity, very few noticeable
changes have resulted in schooling since our days as results. We are basically using the same
instructional methods in the classroom that we were using fifty years ago, according to one
observer. On the other hand, the changes and improvements in science, technology and medicine
within the last five years have been impressive, and they have affected almost all of our lives in
We might expect educational aims and subject matter to change as society imposes new
social and political demands on the schools, and as new knowledge is created. And they do!
However, we should not expect the structure and organization of schools to change dramatically.
This is why a teacher, after ten or twenty years of retirement, could, if he or she wanted, go back
into the classroom and still be effective.
We must understand that schools are highly bureaucratic and conservative (or traditional)
institutions that operate with standardized norms of behavior, written rules and regulations, and
well-defined tasks dispersed among administrators, teachers and students. As parents and/or
teachers who were once students, we can return to school and readily cope and functions almost