CLEP Principles of Management 1

The forming stage should not be rushed because trust

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The forming stage should not be rushed because trust and openness must be developed. These feelings strengthen in later stages of development. Individuals are often confused during this stage because roles are not clear and there may not be a strong leader. Teams end this phase with clarity about the team's mission. 2. Storming . In this stage, the group is likely to see the highest level of disagreement and conflict. Members often challenge group goals and struggle for power. Individuals often vie for the leadership position during this stage of development. This can be a positive experience for all groups if members can achieve cohesiveness through resolution. Members often voice concern and criticism in this phase. If members are not able to resolve the conflict, then the group will often disband or continue in existence but will remain ineffective and never advance to the other stages. 3. Norming . This stage is characterized by the recognition of individual differences and shared expectations. Hopefully, at this stage the group members will begin to develop a feeling of group cohesion and identity. Cooperative effort should begin to yield results. Responsibilities are divided among members and the group decides how it will evaluate progress. 4. Performing occurs when the group has matured and attains a feeling of cohesiveness. During this stage of development, individuals accept one another and conflict is resolved through group discussion. Members of the group make decisions through a rational process that is focused on relevant goals rather than emotional issues. 5. Adjourning . Not all groups experience this stage of development because it is characterized by the disbandment of the group. Some groups are relatively permanent. Reasons that groups disband vary, with common reasons being the accomplishment of the task or individuals deciding to go their own ways. 80. 81. Mark and Simon Experiment - experiment to study the Simon effect which refers to the finding that people are faster and more accurate when responding to stimuli that occur in the same relative location as the response. In the experiment, computer shows you red and green squares on the left and right side of the screen haphazardly. When the square is red you press M key and when it is green you press the V key on your keyboard. Since the M key is on the right side of the keyboard you are expected to react faster when the red light is on the right side of the screen and its the same for green light and V key. 82. 83. COMMUNICATION Upward occurs when employees communicate with superiors. The main function of upward communication is to provide information to the upper levels about what is happening at the lower levels. Horizontal Communication flows laterally among workers on the same level of an organization and cuts across all boundaries. Horizontal communication does not follow the chain of command and it cuts across boundaries (business unit, product line, geographic etc). It can consist of conferences, phone calls, conversations, memos, emails, or reports. For example two secretaries in different departments exchange
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