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acquiring candida infections d/t diminished levels of neutrophils-Invasive candidiasis may also occur from indwelling catheters, IVs, peritoneal dialysis (direct access)-Complications: abscesses in the kidneys, brain, liver, shock DIC, death-Mycotoxicoses- ingestion of fungal toxins (Amanita mushroom produces hepatotoxins, wild mushroom that when eaten causes liver failure, problem in foreign countries, will require liver transplantation & dialysis to
tachycardia), DIC, and death-Special adhesion factors- allows it to bind to implanted devices, epithelium, ECM, leukocytes, facilitates tissue invasionl.Evaluate the etiology, clinical manifestations and pathophysiology for influenza, measles, and HIV infection. Differentiate between the incubation, etiology, and modes of transmission for influenza, measles, and HIV infection and discuss the implications for clinical practice. Viral Infection IncubationEtiologyModes of Transmission InfluenzaViral shedding= 3-5 days of infection (adults), 10 days (children)-Occurs in winter months-Incubation period 1-4daysSelf-limiting, febrile viral illness of upper/lower respiratory system-High risk= very young, elderly, chronically ill, debilitated, immunocompromised-Single stranded RNA (3 types, A, B, C)-A & B- antigenic shifts> causes virus to mutate (transmitted through droplets, direct contact with infected hands/surfaces)-Antigenic driftd/t results in mutations, undergoes yearly change, not always protected against influenza the following year-Yearly vaccine- 2 Influenza A & 1 Influenza B subtypesVirus inhaled > neuraminidase(viral protein, on envelop) > degrades mucous layer of respiratorysystem > using hemagglutinin(viral protein, on envelop) > infects cells of the upper/lower respiratory system> necrosis of superficial respiratory cells and inflammation > leaving host susceptible to bacterial PNA-Neuraminidase also responsible for release of viruses from infected cells
-Influenza A: Undergoes major antigenic changes- shifts occur in animals confected by a human and an avian strain of influenza- genoma becomes segmented and undergo recombination (virus obtains a new HA/NA antigen), previous protection may not exist-Influenza B: infects humans, mutates slower than A, reducedrate of antigenic changesSubtypes based on HA (16 forms) and NA (9 forms) antigens- infectious to birds and mammalsMeasles6-19 days-Contagious is from 5 days before appearance of rash until 4 days after the rash has appearedCaused by virus rubeola, systemic infection causes immune suppression