Responses to proposed designs but also the context of

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responses to proposed designs but also the context of use and users personal perspectives. Users also became involved in design not only through ethnography and the more traditional focus groups, but through engagement in the design process itself.
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The methods for accomplishing this included collaborative workshops in which users and designers worked together to develop and test designs. This was the basis of both the JAD and PD approaches, with differing emphases: in JAD, the user was a necessary but often subordinate party to the design process, while under the techno- populist PD (Asaro 2000) users were seen as equal partners in the design process. For design to be truly user centred, however, it needed to go further than merely adapting products to users physical and cognitive needs and capabilities. Norman (2004) shows that users emotional states also influence how they respond to design and that this response in turn affects the functioning of the design itself: objects that feel better actually work better. Hence designers need to develop a rich, deep understanding of the emotional context that users bring to designed objects. To go further still, designers need to pay attention to the users overall experience, which is not confined to their reaction to the physical attributes of the product. Experiences comprise not just the product itself, but services, interactions, processes and environment. However, each user s experience is essentially a subjective and only partially observable event: each user creates his or her own experience through the usage of the product in its particular context of use and in conjunction with the user s own physical, cognitive, and emotional perspectives. Hence the traditional, instrumentalist view of users among businesses as consumers of design is called into question: if each user is essentially a creator of his or her own experience, he or she is on an equal plane with the designer, as proponents of PD would advocate for more political reasons. These ideas have echoes in the management literature. Leonard and Rayport (1997) show how users unarticulated needs can be observed through a process of empathic design and there is an extensive literature on the use of ethnographic methods in User-centred Design 131 market research (for example, Arnould and Wallendorf 1994; Underhill 2000; Mariampolsky 2006). Prahalad and Ramaswamy (2003, 2004) take up the question of user engagement in the design process, arguing that consumers today are more connected, informed and active than ever before. They contend that, as a result, the traditional firm-centric view of value will give way to co-creation of value between firms and consumers in which firms develop capabilities to respond flexibly and quickly to customer needs. For Prahalad and Ramaswamy, the task of innovation is one of developing experiences in partnership with customers, rather than products targeted to customers.
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