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fused medially, alveolar margins hold teeth of upper jaw. Palatine processes project posteriorly forming the anterior 2/3 of hard palate. Incisive fossa (passage of blood vessels and nerves), frontal processes and zygomatic processes. Main portion of bone on each side has maxillary sinus – these are the sinuses that get infected. All facial bones articulate with the maxilla except for the mandible. Articulates with zygomatic bone via their zygomatic processes-Zygomatic bones:cheekbones. Articulate with zygomatic processes of maxilla, temporal bones and frontal bones. Contribute to inferolateral margins of orbit. -Nasal bones:2 tiny, rectangular bones that fuse medially to form bridge of nose. Articulate with frontal bone superiorly and maxillary bones laterally. -Lacrimal Bones:2 fingernail-shaped bones in anterior, medial portion of orbit. Articulates with frontal bone, ethmoid bone, maxillae. Each has a depression (lacrimal fossa) for lacrimal sac. -Orbits:zygomatic, frontal, maxilla, ethmoid, lacrimal, sphenoid, palatine (orbital process).
-Palatine bones: 2 L-shaped bones. Horizontal plates form posterior part of hard palate. Verticle plates – nasal cavity and orbit. Palatine processes project from the teeth and fuse, forming anterior 2/3 of the hard palate. -Vomer:single thin bone forms nasal septum. -Inferior Nasal Conchae:superior and middle nasal conchae from ethmoid bone. Thin, curved bones – project medially. Largest of 3 pairs of conchae. -Nasal cavity: roof (cribiform plate of ethmoid). Lateral walls (superior and middle concha of ethmoid perpendicular plate of palatine bone, inferior nasal concha). Floor (palatine processes of maxillae and palatine bones). -Nasal Septum: nasal septum – creates left and right parts of the nasal cavity. Vomer forms bony portion inferiorly. Perpendicular plate of ethmoid forms superior aspect. Septal cartilage forms anterior aspect. -Paranasal sinuses: frontal, maxillary, sphenoid, ethmoid. Mucosa lined, air filled. Lighten the skull and enhance resonance of voice. Connect to nasal cavity so also help to warm and humidifyincoming air. -Hyoid:only bone in the body that does not articulate with any other bones. Supports tongue and gives attachment to muscles for swallowing and speech. Horse-shoe shaped with a body andtwo pairs of horns.
-Vertebral column: 33 bones of which 24 remain separate (flexibility) and the remaining 9 fuse toform 2 composite bones (sacrum and coccyx), 26 bones in the adult. Functions include: provides column of support (transports body’s weight to lower limbs), protects the spinal cord, anchor formuscle and ligament attachments, maintains upright position. Sacrum and coccyx are irregular bones. -Spinal Curves: primary curves (develop before birth) and secondary curves (develop after birth).-Cervical Curve:secondary; develops as infant learns to balance head on neck-Thoracic Curve:primary; accommodates thoracic organs (heart/lungs)-Lumbar Curve:secondary; develops with ability to stand; balances trunk over lower limbs-Sacral Curve:primary; accommodates reproductive organs.