Lone pairs contribute two electrons to the atom on

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Lone pairs contribute two electrons to the atom on which they are found. Formal charge = A-group number number of lines number of dots
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Nitrogen – 4 bonds
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Orbital Overlap for ammonium, NH 4 +
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Bonding in NH 4 + Four equivalent sigma covalent bonds arise due to the overlap of four sp 3 hybrid orbitals on the nitrogen atom with 1s atomic orbitals on the hydrogen atoms. Because the sp 3 hybrid orbitals are arranged in a tetrahedral geometry, the molecule has tetrahedral electron group geometry with bond angles of about 109.5 ° .
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Things to explain for the bonding in a water molecule, H 2 O Why are there two equivalent O-H covalent bonds? Why are the bond angles about 105 ° ?
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Oxygen – 2 bonds & 2 lone pairs
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Orbital Overlap for Water, H 2 O
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Bonding in H 2 O Two equivalent sigma covalent bonds arise due to the overlap of two sp 3 hybrid orbitals on the oxygen atom with 1s atomic orbitals on the hydrogen atoms. The lone pairs can be viewed as in sp 3 hybrid orbitals. Because the sp 3 hybrid orbitals are arranged in a tetrahedral geometry, the molecule has tetrahedral electron group geometry with bond angles of about 109.5 ° (actually about 105 ° ). A molecule that has two bonds and two lone pairs around its central atom is said to have bent molecular geometry.
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Water, H 2 O, Geometry Water molecules have tetrahedral electron group geometry and bent molecular geometry.
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Water, H 2 O
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Oxygen – 1 bond & 3 lone pairs
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Carbon – 3 bonds & 1 lone pair Oxygen – 3 bonds & 1 lone pair
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Bonding in CO The triple bond between the carbon and oxygen atoms consists of one sigma bond formed due to the overlap of two sp hybrid orbitals, one from the carbon atom and one from the oxygen atom. Two pi bonds, each of which arises due to the overlap of unhybridized 2 p orbitals, one from the carbon atom and one from the oxygen atom.
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Things to explain for the bonding in a boron trifluoride molecule, BF 3 Why are there three equivalent B-F covalent bonds? Why is the molecule trigonal planar with bond angles of 120 ° ?
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Boron – 3 bonds
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Orbital Overlap in BF 3
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Trigonal Planar Geometry – BF 3
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Bonding in BF 3 Three equivalent sigma covalent bonds arise due to the overlap of three sp 2 hybrid orbitals on the boron atom with sp 3 atomic orbitals on the fluorine atoms. Because the sp 2 hybrid orbitals are arranged in a trigonal planar geometry, the molecule has trigonal planar geometry.
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Halogens – 1 bond & 3 lone pairs
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Things to explain for the bonding in a phosphorus pentafluoride molecule, PF 5 Why are there five equivalent P-F covalent bonds? Why is the molecule trigonal planar with bond angles of 90 ° , 120 ° , and 180 ° ?
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