O jaran langur o proboscis monkey o red shanked douc

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o Jaran langur o Proboscis monkey o Red-shanked Douc Langur o Golden Snub-nose monkey Homonoids Old world monkeys Apes Narrow nose Broad nose Narrow palate Broad palate Bilophodont molars Larger brain Long trunk Simple molars Limbes are more equal in length Full abduction of forelimb Long arms Short trunk No tail Flat chest Habitats of extant African and asian apes - Central Africa, west Africa, southeast asia Apes – hylobatids - White-handed Gibbon - Siamang o Brachiation Great Apes - Louis Leakey’s Angels o Jane Goodall o Dian Fossey o Birute Galdikas - Important because of cognition Orangutans - Pongo pymaus male - Dongo female - Orangutan tool use Gorillas - Knuckle-walking Chimps - Termite fishing - Hunting
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Bonobos 10.14.2010 An introduction to Primate Scoiobiology - The ecological and evolutionary basis for understanding primate behavior - Also known as behavioral ecology To understand behavior we have to touch on Nature vs. nurture - To what degree is behavior genetic or inherited? - To what degree is behavior learned? the basic unit is the mother offspring bond male-female relations boil down to mating partners three basic things determine primate grouping and behavior - Resource distribution - Predation - Reproduction Resource distribution - Can be: o Clumped o Dispersed o Abundant o Rare Ex: insects are dispersed and abundant Fruit – clumped and sometimes rare Leaves – abundant and dispursed Wrangham’s Idea Rules: - A beats B, who beats C, who beats D - But any two can beat any individual We have a tree with enough fruit for two - If no one cooperates… A and B will get food - But if C and D cooperate… they can individually defeat A and then B - So A and B must cooperate to be able to move back into the tree Thus primate live in group to defend resources - What about folivores? - They live in groups but don’t defend territories, while leaves are abundant o Predation defense More eyes Safety in numbers
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What about males? - They go where the female are - Males are theoretically unlimited in reproductive output - Pressure to exlude other males - Male-male competition - Number of males is contingent on female distribution in space and time Operational sex ratio – the number of males relative to the number of receptive females Small group of asynchronous females – 1 male large group of partially asynchronous females – some males Group of synchronous females – same number of males Infanticide – male kill babies; usually follows male takeover of a group; in multi-male groups, usually done by new males; males only target only nursing infants, and only those that they can be sure are not theirs Lactaional amenorrhea – lactating females do not cycle - Females lose offspring and come into “estros” - Males that kill offspring are rewarded reproductively if… - They don’t kill their own offspring - He has the best chance of siring her next offspring - He can protect the offspring until it is weaned Male coercion – males can force mating Sexually antagonistic coevolvution - Female counterstrategies must evolve, since male coercion is not necessarily in her interest - Female strategies
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