Observer her chances of identifying inefficient

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observer, her chances of identifying inefficient processes are good and she can then suggest better solutions. She is farther removed from the proc- esses than the stakeholders, who frequently repeat work steps without questioning them critically. Observation techniques are well suited to elicit detailed requirements and dissatisfiers because the requirements engineer can recognize dissatisfiers thought of as self-evident or only subcon- sciously known by the stakeholders. In addition, the requirements engi- neer becomes very familiar with the domain language, which simplifies further elicitation. Satisfiers can only be observed if they have been imple- mented in the legacy system or are actively employed in the current proc- esses. As a result, this technique is not suited for the development of new processes. During system development, field observations and apprentic- ing are especially well suited as elicitation techniques. Field observation Field observation: The requirements engineer is on location with the specialist or the users of the system and observes and documents the processes and operational procedures that they carry out. Using these observations, she formulates the requirements. Often, this can be fur- ther aided by audio and video recordings. This technique is well suited for operational procedures that are difficult to express verbally, but it can only be applied if the procedures are visible physically. Apprenticing With apprenticing , the requirements engineer must actively learn and perform the procedures of the stakeholders. Just like an apprentice, the requirements engineer is encouraged to question unclear and complex
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30 3 Eliciting Requirements operational procedures so that she may gather domain experience. Thereby, she can experience requirements that the stakeholders take for granted and therefore cannot elucidate. Another advantage is that the typical balance of power between the requirements engineer and the respective specialist is reversed because the stakeholder now adopts the role of the “master” that has the knowledge the apprentice is yet lacking. 3.3.6 Support Techniques Support techniques serve as an addition to the elicitation techniques and try to balance out the weaknesses and pitfalls of the chosen elicitation tech- nique. Mind mapping In mind mapping, a graphical representation of the refined relation- ships and interdependencies between terms is created. Mind mapping is often used as a supporting technique for brainstorming or brain- storming paradox. Workshops During a joint meeting, the requirements engineer and the stake- holders elaborate the goals (or details of a certain functionality) of the system. For example, the necessary user interfaces of the system can be designed in a workshop [Gottesdiener 2002 ].
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