initiated the use of the Russian language in schools, and the Komi people became bilingual. Eventually, the Komi language was so heavily influenced by Russian that it may be extinct. Enforced attendance at boarding schools for Native Americans in the United States was also a strategy pursued by the U.S. government. Teaching English and Christianity were part of the attempts to force cultural change and decrease the cultural difference between Native Americans and Whites.As a result of colonial and national policies, languages are being lost. Keeping track of endangered and dying languages is difficult because no one is sure how many languages have existed in the recent past and even now. Estimates of living languages today range from 5,000 to 7,000—it is difficult to obtain a more precise number because it is difficult to separate languages from dialects. While language extinction is a serious problem worldwide, it is acute in the Australia/Pacific region, where 99.5 percent of the indigenous languages have fewer than 100,000 speakers.
Over half of the world’s languages have fewer than 10,000 speakers; a quarter have less than 1,000 speakers.There are efforts to revive and maintain indigenous languages. Major strategies includeFormal classroom instructionMaster-apprentice system in which an elder teaches a non-speaker in a one-on-one situationWeb-based tools and services to support language learningIn addition to these strategies, living communities are essential keep alive the knowledge of a language and transmit it to future generations.Language and Worldview: Language, Thought, and CultureLanguage, Culture, and Thought. “The relationships between language, culture, and thought arecomplex. They are all connected to each other in multiple ways. They all influence each other mutually. We are born into communities speaking languages and having cultures. We learn all three at thesame time. Our thought grows from our experiences. “The Real World”. Anthropological linguistic Edward Sapir writing in (1929:162) said: “The fact of the matter is that the ‘real world’ is to a large extent unconsciously built up on the language habits of the group. No two languages are ever sufficiently similar to considered as representing the same social reality. The worlds in which different societies live are distinct worlds, not merely the same world with different labels.”Linguistic relativity and worldview. Whorf (1940/1956:221) said “users of markedly different grammars are pointed by their grammars toward different types of observations and different evaluations of externally similar acts of observation and hence are not equivalent as observers but must arrive at somewhat different view of the world.” For example, in Hopi, a native language of Arizona, there are 2 kinds of verbs, those referring to a single action and those referring to repeated actions. In Hopi wiwa ‘he stumbles’ is a single-action verb referring to onehappening. Repeated action verbs can be duplicate of part of a single-action verb. Wiwa means ‘he stumbles’, but Wiwawata means ‘he is hobbling along’ and is a repeated action verb. So in