such as HIV/AIDS, asthma, diabetes, malaria malnutrition waterborne diseases, and others (Wango and Mungai 2007). Students need to feel secure by adopting safety measures in health at school, at work, and elsewhere. The school guidance and counselling programme therefore can help the students through relevant advisory programmes such as life skills.
2.9 Importance of guidance and counselling to students Brigman and Campbell (2003) in their research found out that, school counselling interventions that focus on the development of cognitive, social and selfmanagement skills can result in sizeable gains to students’ academic achievement, and it is evidence that students counselling improves school attendance, school behaviour, increases students’ level of self- esteem and attitudes towards school, (Beale, 2004). 2.10 Theoretical framework Administratively, this study can be compared to Two Factor Theory, which was proposed by an American, by the name Fredrick Herzberg in 1959. Two-Factor Theory is also known as Motivator-Hygiene theory. This theory postulated that employee satisfaction is based on two sets of factors, hygiene factors and motivational factors. Hygiene factors include pay scale, job security, working condition, and relationship with peers and supervisors. Hygiene factors merely create conducive work environment removing dissatisfaction (Lew and Mona 2012). In this research hygiene factors can be compared to the school environment, available resources and facilities, especially resources and facilities available in the guidance and counselling departments in schools, this will remove dissatisfaction on the teacher/ counsellor and even influence the students’ attitude positively. However, for effectiveness of guidance and counselling services to be achieved in schools, the teacher/ counsellor should be motivated, and this brings us to motivational factors. Motivator factors include; achievements, recognition for accomplishment, challenging work, increased responsibility, and growth and development. These factors are important since they spur workers to achievement. This research will check on achievements and recognition in terms of the number of students that have shown positive change after successful counselling. The researcher will check on growth and development of the teacher/counsellors. Strength of Herzberg’s theory is that, it can be applied by managers to motivate employees. By identifying the hygiene factors, managers can fulfil the basic needs of employees and remove any elements of dissatisfaction. When employees have no dissatisfaction arising from the job environment, they are in a better mode to be motivated. Thus, managers are able to actually work on basic needs ones identified, and then go to more complex needs of employees.
2.11 Conceptual framework A conceptual framework is a graphical or diagrammatical representation of the relationship between variables in the study. It is a graphical or visual representation that is used to describe the phenomenon understudy (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2003).
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 12 pages?
- Fall '19
- Secondary education, Secondary school