As a result, there is a time lag of unknowingly infecting others. Long-time lags, sometimes years, exist between contracting an STI and an onset of significant Slides and Notes for ... 第 13 页 共 43 页 12/9/14, 3:31 PM
health problems. During the asymptomatic period individuals can unknowingly infect others, and individuals may not seek treatment, allowing the STI to do damage to their reproductive system. STIs can also become resistant to treatment or lack a cure. Resistant strands of viruses, bacteria, and other pathogens are continuing developing. Antibiotics that have worked may no longer effective. Infected people may continue to transmit STIs because they believe they are cured or currently show no symptoms. As previously discussed, women are also more susceptible, and those biological factors increase their risk for STI acquisition. Adolescent women are highly susceptible to acquiring chlamydia and gonorrhea because of an immature cervix. Women who practice vaginal douching are also at great risk for pelvic inflammatory disease, bacterial vaginosis, and other STIs. Douching disturbs the vaginal protective systems including the chemical and microbial balance, decreasing the good bacteria in the vagina. It also distorts the pH balance and permits the overgrowth of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria. Men with an uncircumcised penis have also been linked to an increase risk for STIs including HPV, gonorrhea, HIV, and syphilis. So as we see, various biological, behavioral, and social factors contribute to STI transmission. Consequences of STIs Slides and Notes for ... 第 14 页 共 43 页 12/9/14, 3:31 PM
Lecture Notes STI infection has its share of consequences for women, men, and infants. STI infection and the presence of other STIs increase the likelihood of transmission and acquiring HIV. Someone infected with another STI has two to five times more likelihood to be infected with HIV. In addition, susceptibility to HIV is increased with the presence of other STIs. The likelihood of a dually infected person, someone with HIV and an STI, infecting other people with HIV is also increased. Untreated STIs have serious consequences. It can result in infertility and sterility. For example, untreated pelvic inflammatory disease causes 10-15 percent of women's infertility. It also can cause ectopic pregnancy and miscarriages for women. Untreated STIs can also lead to blindness, cancer, and heart disease, and death. There is also an astronomical cost to STIs. The direct cost for STIs is over 16 billion dollars annually and that number does not include indirect nonmedical costs, such as lost wages and productivity due to illness, out-of-pocket expenses, and the costs related to STI transmission to infants.
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- Spring '08
- Human Sexuality, Sexual intercourse, Human sexual behavior, Human papillomavirus