These discoveries were an advance to the field of

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cells could produce nerve, liver and brain cells. These discoveries were an advance to the field of stem cell research because scientists would be able to find the cure to different diseases (Murnaghan, 2018). Nowadays, the research on stem cells is ongoing because of the significant advance in technology. Stem cell research has now progressed dramatically, and there are countless research studies published each year, with the continued support and research, scientists will be able to find more ways in which these cells can help to treat many diseases. What makes stem cells unique? Well, stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body during our early life and growth (“Stem Cell Basics I.,” 2016). They have the extraordinary ability to divide over and over again to produce new cells. Through this division process, they can turn into other cell types that make up the body ("What is a stem cell?" 2017). There are three main types of stem cells: Embryonic stem cells as their name suggest, are obtained from embryos through in vitro fertilization ("Stem Cell Basics III.," 2016). In vitro fertilization is a process which collects mature eggs from woman's ovaries, and they are fertilized by sperm in a laboratory (“In Vitro Fertilization,” 2018). Adult stem cells are also known as somatic, which means they exist in children, as well in adults. Unlike embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells are not controversial because they do not require the destruction of an embryo ("Adult stem cell," n.d.). Adult stem cells are a special type of stem cells. One of their functions is to maintain the steady-state functioning of a cell which is called homeostasis and replace cells that die because of injury or disease (“The Adult Stem Cell,” 2016). Induced pluripotent stem cells can make cells from all three primary body layers to produce any cell or tissue that the body needs to repair itself (“Pluripotent Stem Cells 101,” n.d.). Stem cell research promises to find cures of different diseases. Stem cells can be used to treat many diseases. The
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STEM CELL RESEARCH 4 treatment that involves stem cells is called stem cell therapy. Doctors have performed stem cell transplants, also known as bone marrow transplants (“Questions about stem cell research,” 2018). Bone marrow transplants are being used to cure Leukemia. A bone marrow transplant replaces damaged bone marrow stem cells with those from a healthy donor. In this procedure,
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