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Approximately 34 million people are infected with hiv

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• Approximately 34 Million People are infected with HIV Worldwide - Approximately 1.8 Million People die each Year due to HIV • Approximately 1.2 Million are infected in the US - 1 in 5 are unaware that they are Infected
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HIV/AIDS Page 5 Human Immunodeficiency Virus 100 nm in Diameter, 9.3 Kb Positive Sense RNA Virus • Each HIV Particle consists of: - “Shrink-Wrapped” Lipid Bilayer Envelope containing Trimeric Complexes of -- • Surface Protein / SU / gp 120 [120 kD glycoprotein] • Transmembrane Protein / TM / gp 41 - Icosahedral Matrix • Matrix / MA / p17 [17 kD protein] - Tapered Cylindrical Core • Capsid Protein / CA / p24 The Tapered Cylindrical Core is unique to HIV. Other Retroviruses have an Icosahedral Core. Core contains -- • Dimeric RNA Genome - Two identical single-stranded 9.3 Kb Positive Sense RNA Molecules • Complexed with Nucleocapsid Protein / NC / p7 • Two Cellular tRNAs • These are Basepaired to the Genome and serve as Primers for Reverse Transcriptase • Reverse Transcriptase / RT / p66 - Converts ssRNA Genome to dsDNA • Protease / PR / p14 - Cleaves Polyproteins into functional Proteins • Integrase / IN / p32 - Integrates dsDNA into Host Cell Genome
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HIV/AIDS Page 6 The HIV Genome contains 3 Major Genes which code for 3 Polyproteins (Gag, Gag-Pol and Env) that will be cleaved into individual Proteins • Gag Polyprotein (G roup A ntigen G enes) for Capsid Proteins - p17 Matrix Protein (MA) - p24 Capsid Protein (CA) - p7 Nucleocapsid Protein (NC) • Pol Polyprotein (Pol ymerase) for Enzymes - p14 Protease (PR) - p66 Reverse Transcriptase (RT) - p32 Integrase (IN) • Env Polyprotein (Env elope Proteins) for Envelope Proteins - gp120 Surface Protein (SU) - gp41 Transmembrane Protein (TM) The Sequence on the Genome/mRNA: Gag Pol Env MA-CA-NC -PR-RT-IN -SU-TM Think MAngy CAts muNCh PRechilled RaTs IN SUmmer TiMe. There are also oodles and oodles of Regulatory Sequences on the HIV Genome but we ʼ ll ignore these. For the Record these are Viral Infectivity Factor (Vif), Virion Protein Unique to HIV-1 Factor (Vpu), Transactivator of Transcription (Tat), Regulator of Expression of Virion Proteins (Rev) and Negative Effector (Nef). The HIV Replication Cycle HIV Entry • SU binds to CD4, inducing a Confirmation Change that allows binding to a Co-Receptor Protein - Fusin (CXCR4) on CD4 + T Cells - CCR5 on Macrophage and Monocytes • SU Binding to Co-Receptor induces a Conformation Change in TM - TM pierces Host Cell Membrane and induces fusion of Host Cell Membrane with HIV Envelope • Matrix and Core disassemble in the Cytoplasm
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HIV/AIDS Page 7 HIV Genome converted to Preintegration Complex HIV RT converts the Single-Stranded Positive Sense RNA HIV Genome into the Double-Stranded DNA HIV Double-Stranded DNA. It accomplishes this with 3 separate Enzymatic Activities.
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