5 a socialized power orientation is represented by

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5. A socialized power orientation is represented by leaders who are mature, exercise power more for the benefit of others than for themselves, are less egoistic and defensive, and are willing to take advice from others in the organization. IV. Follower-Centered Approaches A. Self-Leadership Focus 1. Self-leadership is sometimes referred to as followership , and is a paradigm founded on creating an organization of leaders who are ready to lead themselves. 2. Effective self-leaders have the following characteristics. a. the capacity to motivate themselves and stay focused on tasks b. integrity that demands both loyalty to the organization and the willingness to act according to beliefs c. understanding of the organization and their contributions to it d. willingness to take the initiative to deal with problems e. versatility, skillfulness, and flexibility to adapt to a changing environment f. responsibility for their own careers, actions, and development B. Leadership Substitutes Refer to Figure 12.3 1. Leadership substitutes are variables, individual, task, and organizational characteristics that tend to outweigh the leader’s ability to affect subordinate satisfaction and performance. a. A neutralizer is a condition that counteracts leader behavior or prevents the leader from having an effect on a follower or a specific situation. 2. Follower characteristics that can serve as leadership substitutes include experience, training, ability, professional orientation, and indifference toward organizational rewards. 180
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Chapter 12: Leading in a Dynamic Environment 3. Task characteristics that can serve as leadership substitutes include simple and repetitive tasks, highly structured tasks with frequent feedback, and intrinsically satisfying tasks. 4. Organizational characteristics that can serve as leadership substitutes include high levels of formality, inflexibility, cohesive work groups, staff support, managerially independent reward structures, and spatial distance between followers and managers. V. Interactive Approaches A. Situational Leadership Model 1. The situational leadership model is based on the interaction of certain employee characteristics, referred to as readiness, and leadership style, based on the concern for the task and the concern for the employee. a. Readiness is the extent to which a subordinate possesses the ability, knowledge, and skills, job experience, and willingness to complete a specific task. 2. Leadership styles a. The telling style provides specific instructions and closely supervises performance. This style works best when readiness is low. b. The selling style explains decisions and provides opportunities for clarification. This style works best when employees are competent but not yet willing to take on responsibility. c. The participating style involves sharing ideas and maintaining two-way communication to encourage and support the skills employees have developed.
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