ers. This could also expand our understanding of hacker subculture and hacking generally. Appendix: Argot of Hacker Subculture 1337 speak : the replacement of characters and numbers in lieu of letters in certain words and phrases used in computer-mediated communications. Black hat hacker : a skilled hacker who breaks into systems without authorization or permission to engage in malicious behaviors. Con : real-world hacker conference or convention. Crack : (a) a malicious or damaging hack and (b) breaking the security protections on software enabling users to copy the materials at any time for free. Cracker : (a) a hacker who engages in malicious or damaging hacks and (b) someone who breaks the security protections on software allowing the materials to be copied freely at any time. Elite : a very skilled, proficient hacker (also ‘leet, leet, and 1337). 478 Social Science Computer Review 28(4) 478 at SOUTH DAKOTA ST UNIV LIBRARY on August 21, 2015 ssc.sagepub.com Downloaded from
End user : an individual with very little knowledge of computer systems who uses technology for simple means only. Exploit : a script or code that takes advantage of vulnerabilities in computer software and hard- ware to attack or manipulate the system in unintended ways. Fed : a law enforcement officer or federal agent. Flame : a text-based insult or jab. Gray hat hacker : a skilled hacker who engages in malicious or ethical hacking depending on his or her mood or a given situation. Hack : a legitimate, useful alteration or adjustment of computer hardware or software, which enables technology to be used in an unusual or innovate way. Hacker : a skilled computer user with a profound interest in technology who alters technological devices to work in innovative or new ways. Lamer : hackers who engage in either criminal or negative hacks as well as weak or simple hacks. Newbie : someone who is either new to hacking or web forums (also noob, n00b, newb, neophite). Phreaker : individual who hacks telephone networks and related technologies. Pirate : an individual who creates and trades illegal copies of copyrighted material. Scene whore : individual who is not involved in hacking or hacker subculture but attends hacker conventions and fraternizes with hackers. Script : a prewritten series of codes that operate or execute automatically. Script kiddie : hacker with limited skill who relies on scripts or programs created by others to perform actual attacks. Social engineering : the verbal or physical misrepresentation of self to gain information. Wardriving : driving around a city or area using technological devices to look for wireless inter- net access points. Warez : cracked or pirated software often traded between hackers. White hat hacker : a skilled hacker who uses his or her knowledge and skill to protect and secure systems.
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