Mercury harms nervous system of fetus¾< 6 ounces of canned albacore tuna per week¾Avoid soft unpasteurized cheeses – may be contaminated with bacterium Listeria monocytogenes¾Can cause stillbirthC. Nutritional care for pregnant women1.Recommended weight gaina.Regular pattern is bestb.1st Trimester0.25 lb/wkc.2nd Trimester1 lb/wkd.3rd Trimester1 lb/wkTotal weight gain goal (dependent on pre-pregnancy BMI)28 - 40 lb. for low weight (BMI < 18.5)25 - 35 lb. for normal weight women (BMI 18.5-24.9)15 - 25 for high weight (BMI 25-29.9)11 - 20 lb. for obese (BMI > 30)Teenagers should gain > 35 lbs2.Energy a.1st Trimesterno change (body adjusts)b.2nd Trimester 350-450 additional calories per day c.3rd Trimestersame as 2nd trimesterd.Lactation500 additional calories per day
3.Proteina.Additional 25 g/d 4.Carbohydrate- ketone bodies, poorly used by fetal brain, may slow down fetal brain development5. Vitamin and mineralsIncreased hemoglobinIron stores for fetusSynthesis of DNA Fetal and maternal growthIncreased red blood cell formationPrevent neural tube defect5. Vitamin and minerals- remember only 10 to 20% increase in energyVitamin/Mineral Needs Compared to a Non-pregnant FemaleVitamin DCalciumZincRDA2x No change25% increaseif over 24yrbut women50% for lactationusually lowRolecalciumfetalCell growth &absorptionbone growthdevelopmentSourcesMilkMilkProtein-rich foods SunlightMilk products5. Vitamin and minerals- remember only 10 to 20% increase in energyVitamin/Mineral Needs Compared to a Non-pregnant FemaleFolateIronRDA2x 2xesp. preconceptionRoleRapid cell growth Fetal storesIncreased blood vol. Inc. blood vol.SourcesFresh fruits &MeatVegetablesEnriched grainAlso:Vitamin A (2x)Vitamin EIncrease with body size increaseVitamin CIncrease, especially during lactationB VitaminsIncrease due to increase in energy metabolism, especially B12 for energy and bloodPrenatal Supplementation is common, not a substitute for a nutrient rich diet.
6. Food choices a.
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- Spring '08
- Nutrition, blood glucose, weight gain