Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic Only chemical in group 4 is caprolactum - Risk= Hazard x Exposure o Ex. Sunlight is hazardous; however, it is possible to protect ourselves from exposure to sunlight o Hazard does not change, risk does - Group 2A: Hot beverages o Evidence from south America o Increase in risk of esophageal cancer - Group 2A: baked goods, red meat, profession of hair dresser - All in the same group of glyphosate, but we don’t tend to worry about these things - Bacon in in group 1, aka an established carcinogen o Increased risk of mostly bowel cancer - Dosage matters! o This is not reflected in the arguments put forward by those against herbicides - Roundup is Monsanto’s name for glyphosate o Company most attacked by the activists - They say: if its not safe to breath, how could it be safe to eat? o Well, completely different situation o The amount of roundup found on food is very different from what would be the consequence of breathing in this chemical while applying it o We can detect substances down to ppb and ppt, testimonial to the capabilities of analytical chemists o Just because something can be detected, doesn’t mean it is doing harm - What is our true exposure to glyphosate, and what do we know about those numbers? o Interesting data from urine o Can measure the amount of glyphosate produced in urine o Many organizations around the world have done studies on glyphosate and have determined the acceptable daily intake (ADI)= 0.5 mg/kg body weight o If we are exposed to that amount, there is no problem to be expected
- Certainly, some unknown information within this o But, pretty good consensus around the world of this ADI - ADI= 0.5 mg/kg body weight means ADI=4mg/L urine - What do we actually find? o People produce anywhere from 1-3 micrograms/L o 1/1300 th of ADI! o Indeed, the studies produced has concluded unlikely to be carcinogenic o Contrary to IARC allegation o Based on hazard vs. Risk - New Zealand Environmental protection authority o Showed no association to cancer - European expert committee o Roundup does not cause cancer - ECHA (European chemicals agency) o Not classified as carcinogen - This does not seem to matter to California o Glyphosate causes cancer, rules California o Proposition 65 “any substance in any dose, in any animal that causes cancer should be given as warning to public Roundup; “this product may contain a chemical known to the state of California to cause cancer, birth defects or other reproductive harm But: you can go to Disneyland which gives the same warning This warning is crying wolf and has a real downside (i.e when a real danger comes, no one will pay attention) - Long-term study finds that the pesticide glyphosate does not cause cancer o Interesting study because not just the general public but people that are exposed to very high amounts o They monitored the health of 90,000 people from 1993-2010, farmers licensed to apply pesticides, their wives, etc.
- Spring '11
- The American, Genetically modified organism, Pesticide, glyphosate