More common when children adopted at older age · Probably separated from attachment figure § More common when care before adoption was poor - Quality of life before adoption places some adopted children at risk o Most adopted children fare quite well though Qualities of Sibling Relationships - older one may be withdrawn/ back to childish behaviour because need to share parental attention and affection o avoided if parents remain responsive to their older kids needs o benefits of siblings birth: fathers often become more involved with their older children - older siblings usually like caring for younger ones - interactions between siblings as they grow become more frequens and complicated o talk more o older siblings become source of care and comfort § serve as teachers - when older siblings do well in school and are popular with peers, younger siblings often follow suit - basic pattern of sibling interaction = established early in development and remains fairly stable - why some good and some bad? o Sex and temperament matter o More likely to be harmonious: § between siblings of same sex than opposite sex § when neither is temperamentally emotional § when no favorites by parents § bttr in adolescence · when each has a unique well defined relationship with parents § when parents get along and don't have conflict - younger kids argue more because they lack social cognitive children to find mutual compromises o parents should intervene when young kids fight o explain why one of the siblings acted the way they did § ex: covered his eyes because he was scared o when they do that they show kids ways to negotiate and resolve disputes Maltreatment and its consequences - many forms: o physical abuse § assault that leads to injuries o sexual abuse § fondling § intercourse § sexual behaviours o Neglect
§ Not giving child adequate food, clothing, medical care o Psychological abuse (most challenging and prevalent forms of child abuse) § Ridicule § Rejection § Humiliation - Difficult to estimate because cases go unreported - Prognosis o Physical damage o Social and emotional development disrupted o Poor relationships § Because they become aggressive too o Cognitive and academic performance disturbed o Don’t regulate emotions well o Emotional problems/ depression/ more suicidal / more abusive to spouses and own children Resilience - ego resilience: denotes children’s ability to respond adaptively and resourcefully to new situations o ex: latino children mistreated were smallest for those flexible in responding to novel and challenging social situations Causes of maltreatment Three very important factors - Culture and community o Europe and asia § Prohibitions against physical punishment o Physical violence is more common in Canada § Spanking is still legal (unlike in Sweden) § Spanking is actually ineffective as punishment o Physical punishment in childhood § Linked to later mental disorders · Mood disorders/ anxiety/ phobias/ drug and alcohol abuse o Poverty is risk factor § When worrying about groceries etc. more likely to punish child physically
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- Winter '14