Effigy Pipe Shell Necklace Bone Necklace Ear Spools Objects found in archeology digs. ©TPWPress 1996
20 Late Prehistoric Indians • The Jornada Mogollon ★ Late Prehistoric people, called the Jornada (HOR-na-da) branch of the Mogollon (MOGG-o-yon), settled in villages near what is now El Paso around 600 A.D. First they lived in individual pit- houses, partly-below-ground dwellings, either round or rectangular in shape. The circular houses were entered through an opening in the roof and the rectangular ones had a ramp leading down to the underground floor. After 1,200 A.D., the pit-houses disappeared and above-ground adjoining blocks of rooms took their place. These people grew corn, beans and squash. They had a complex religion similar to that of the Zuni and Hopi pueblo Indians of New Mexico today. We know this from the hundreds of mask- like images and other symbolic art painted on the rocks of a site called Hueco Tanks State Historical Park near El Paso. By 1,400 A.D. the El Paso area farmers disappeared. ©TPWPress 1996
21 Some Late Prehistoric Native Americans lived in pueblo-like villages in the Texas Panhandle near the Canadian River from about 1,100 A.D. to 1,400 A.D. They grew corn and beans and also hunted bison. In addition, they mined a colorful local stone, called Alibates agate. Highly valued for its use in making beautiful arrowheads and other tools, this stone was traded to the pueblos along the Rio Grande. Goods received in return were pottery, turquoise and seashells, coming from as far west as the Pacific coast of North America. The houses built by these people were quite unusual in their construction. Wall foundations consisted of two parallel rows of slabs of rocks covered with adobe inside and out. Most of the houses were built in single-level apartment-like complexes, but some stood alone. Late Prehistoric Indians • Panhandle Farmers & Traders ★ Shell bracelets, one of many kinds of trade goods brought to the area. ©TPWPress 1996
22 In the Big Bend region of West Texas, archeologists have discovered a pueblo-like culture that had spread down the Rio Grande from the El Paso area. These agricultural Native Americans occupied the area around present-day Redford and Presidio between 1,200 A.D. and 1,400 A.D. The people lived in closely clustered, partly underground, brick-adobe structures plastered with mud. They grew crops of corn, beans and squash. They also hunted and fished and collected nuts, roots and fruits. Late Prehistoric Indians • The Rio Bravo Farmers ★ Maize or Corn from about 1,200 A.D. (actual size) ©TPWPress 1996
23 Late Prehistoric Activity • Making a Pouch 1 Materials needed: An old hand bag may yield enough leather for a pouch, or a piece of felt will do. Needle and thread, scissors and ruler, and something for a strap, such as a piece of yarn, ribbon or an old shoelace.
- Fall '12
- Native Americans in the United States