The following table describes the various command

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The following table describes the various command utilities that can be used to troubleshoot network issues: Utility Description ipconfig (Windows OS) ipconfig displays IP configuration information for network adapters. Use the ipconfig command as follows: Use ipconfig to view IP address, subnet mask, and default gateway configuration. Use ipconfig /all to view detailed configuration information including the MAC address and the DHCP server used for configuration. Use ipconfig /release to release the IP configuration information obtained from the DHCP server. Use ipconfig /renew to request new IP configuration information from the DHCP server. Use ipconfig /displaydns and ipconfig /flushdns to view and manage the local DNS cache. The first command displays the contents of the local DNS cache that Windows maintains and updates every 24 hours. The second option flushes (or removes) all the entries in the current DNS cache. If the IP address of a network server is changed, your local cache will contain the old IP address until the cache is updated or the flushdns option is used.
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ifconfig (Linux/Mac OS ) ifconfig is used on Linux and Mac OS systems and displays the installed network interfaces and the current configuration settings for each interface, including the MAC address, IP address, broadcast address, and subnet address. Use the ifconfig command as follows: Use ifconfig [interface_name] down to disable the specified network interface. Use ifconfig [interface_name] up to enable the specified network interface. Use the following utilities to display additional networking information not provided by ifconfig: The hostname command displays the hostname of the system. The route command displays the default gateway configuration settings. On Linux systems, the iwconfig command is used to display information about wireless network interfaces. ping ping sends an ICMP echo request/reply packet to a remote host. A response from the remote host indicates that both hosts are correctly configured and a connection exists between them. You can ping a host by IP address or use the DNS name. When the DNS name is used, the computer must look up the corresponding IP address before performing the ping test. -a Looks up the hostname from a given IP address. -t Performs a continuous ping test (press Ctrl + C to stop sending the ping tests). -l [size] Specifies the packet payload size (in bytes) to use in the test. This can help identify if packets above a certain size are being lost. tracert, traceroute tracert is similar to the ping utility in that it tests connectivity between devices; however, tracert also shows the path between the two devices. Responses from each hop on the route are measured three times to provide an accurate representation of how long the packet takes to reach, and be returned by, the specific host.
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