tourism experiences Gretzel Jamal 2009 Richards 2011 Fernandes 2011 Stolarick

Tourism experiences gretzel jamal 2009 richards 2011

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tourism’ experiences ( Gretzel & Jamal, 2009; Richards, 2011; Fernandes, 2011; Stolarick, Denstedt, Donald & Spencer, 2011; Wattanacharoensil & Schuckert, 2016; Fahmi, McCann & Koster, 2017). The convergence of tourism and the creative economy has in many areas occurred naturally through the growth of the creative industries, creative clusters and the creative class (Gretzel & Jamal, 2009). But as Fahmi et al. (2017) note in the case of Indonesia, the creative economy has also been forcibly connected to other development agendas , such as tourism and cultural preservation, poverty alleviation and city branding. The Bilbao Guggenheim and other iconic buildings by ‘starchitects’ have also become a major part of global urban competition strategy (Ponzini, Fotev & Mavaracchio, 2016). Tourists can also stay in ‘design hotels’ ( Strannegård & Strannegård, 2012) or visit the World Design Capital (Booyens, 2012). Destinations try to attract the mobile ‘creative class’ as a new breed of cultural tourist particularly interested in the creative atmosphere and ‘buzz’ of places. Such locations are increasingly identified and packaged as ‘ creative clusters of which there are growing numbers around the world (Marques & Richards, 2014). Many of these formally designated clusters are now major tourist destinations in different countries (Richards, 2014; Booyens & Rogerson, 2015), and there are also growing numbers of visitors to informal creative areas in cities such as London (Pappalepore, Maitland, & Smith, 2014). The media also has an important influence on cultural tourism flows, as the many case studies on the impact of films such as The Lord of Rings or the Chinese blockbuster Lost in Thailand show (Connell, 2012; UNWTO, 2018). Lost in Thailand arguably induced more than four million Chinese tourists to visit Thailand in 2013, underlining that film tourism can also play a role in rearticulating geopolitical imaginaries (Mostafanezhad & Promburom, 2018) as well as supporting particular place images and stereotypes. Creative experiences such as artistic creation, dance, cookery, are now also being used to frame destination culture. Aoyama (2009) examines the growing flamenco tourism industry in Seville, which is increasingly integrating creative production (flamenco schools, local cultural groups) with consumption (performances for tourists, creative tourism flamenco courses for visitors). Destinations are also now having to deal with the challenge of embedding relatively mobile creative processes and ideas in place to attract visitors. This inevitably raises questions about the possibility and desirability of copyrighting or protecting intangible cultural heritage (Wanda George, 2010). Ownership is already a fraught issue with tangible heritage, but cultural globalisation makes embedding of intangible culture a major challenge. In the field of gastronomy, a lot of work has been done in protecting food local products, including the development of labels and certification of origin (Ren, 2010). Such labels can not only help to protect food products, but they also serve as markers for cultural tourism visitation (Benkhard & Halmai, 2017). Cultural tourism can also be stimulated through the
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