Athletic prowess he is succeeded by tutmosus the 4 th

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athletic prowess; he is succeeded by Tutmosus the 4 th, who reigned 1412-1403 BC; his most impt action: making alliance btwn Egypt, Mitanni (on middle Euphrates) The alliance sealed by dynastic marriage, as Tutmosus the 4 th received at least one, poss more daughter(s) of king of Mittani into his royal harem; successor of Tutmosus= Amenhotep III, aka Amenhotep the Magnificent, reigned 1403-1364 BC
Amenhotep III enjoys long, peaceful reign; in contrast to immediate predecessors; during his reign, Egypt enjoys grt prestige, prosperity; among places paying tribute to Egypt under Amenhotep III= Assyria, Babylon, Damascus, Eleppo, poss Troy, parts of Greek world Next pharaoh- born Amenhotep the 4 th , reigned 1364-1347 BC; brought about rel revolution w/in Egypt Ancient Egyptian rel : each separate locality in Egypt worshiped own totem god, eg Bast (cat goddess of Bubastus), Thoth (ibus god of hermopolis magna), Amon (ram god of Thebes); as Egypt coalesced into a nation, these local gods coalesced into a pantheon; Egyptian conservative spirit meant gods not abandoned; over time, indv members of this pantheon rose to prominence, and in New Kgdm, chief god of Egypt= Amon-Re, who represented fusion of Amon & Re (god of sun) Amenhotep the 4 th attempts a rel reform- elevates to supremacy new god, Aton- sun god, like Amon- Re, but diff in form; Amon-Re god of sun, while Aton sun itself Early in reign, Amenhotep the 4 th changes name to Akhnaton (“pleasing to Aton”); personally composes famed Hymn to Aton, in which he praises his god Aton as the one and only god who created the earth and everything in it; he claims that he, Akhnaton, is the only one who knows Aton; diagram of worship: Aten ^ Akhenaten ^ Everyone else Akhenaton moves capital fr Thebes to new city, Akhetaton; modern Tel El Amarna; thus reign of Akhenaton = Amarna per; his rel revolution sometimes called Amarna revolution; moving capital both rel, pol move; Thebes had been both capital of Egypt & cult center of Amon-Re & home to his priests By moving capital, Akehnaton marked end of Egyptian rel tradition, worship of Amon-Re & dealt blow to priests’ power; doctrine of new rel, Atonism- Aton only god, worshiped by Pharoah; Akhenaton’s subjects in turn worship him, thr pharaoh Having made this change, Akehnaton grtly persecutes trad’l rel; changes names of rest of his fam in addition to his own, even alters inscriptions of his predecessors to remove Amon element fr thr names; even plural word “gods” = banned He allows temples of old gods to fall into disuse; but all evidence=> new rel Atonism never much of a success; outside of palace, most Egyptians cont’d worshipping trad’l gods, ignored thr pharoah’s innovations; images of Akehnaton portray both his new cult & his curious physical appearance; elongated head, rounded hips – Frolics syndrome conjectured for him, symptoms incl obesity, lg lower jaw, female physique, etc: In art produced during his reign, most ppl portrayed as looking like this^

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