The hemoglobin _ protein binds oxygen in RBCs. When oxygen combines with hemoglobin, it forms bright red_ oxyhemoglobin ____. When hemoglobin releases the oxygen, it becomes dark red _ deoxyhemoglobin __. What is hypoxia? What is cyanosis? RBCcounts:What is a typical RBC count for males? ) What is a typical RBC count for females? 2
After birth, RBC production occurs in the red bone _ marrow __. The average life span of a red blood cell is __ 100-120 days ___. Control of RBC production: “Negative” feedback mechanism Hormonal Control: The total number of red blood cells remains relatively constant due to a negative _ feedback mechanism utilizing the hormone _ Erythropoietin that is released from the kidneys and liver in response to the detection of low oxygen _ levels Dietary Factors Affecting Red Blood Cell Production: Vitamins B 12 and folic acid are needed for DNA synthesis, so they are necessary for the reproduction of all body cells, especially in hematopoietic tissue. The mineral _ iron _ is also needed for hemoglobin synthesis. Destruction of Red Blood Cells With age, red blood cells become increasingly fragile and are damaged by passing through capillaries _. Macrophages in the _ liver _ and __ spleen _ phagocytize damaged red blood cells. Hemoglobin from the decomposed red blood cells is converted into _ heme _ and _ globin __. What happens to the heme and iron? Iron is salvaged (bound to protein) while Heme is degraded into bilirubin. **** How is physiologic jaundice in newborns related to the destruction of heme? How is it treated? What is anemia? What is sickle cell disease? 3
Defective gene codes for abnormal hemoglobin (HbS) which Causes RBCs to become sickle shaped in low-oxygen situations White Blood Cells ( WBC) = Leukocytes: Figure 17.10 on page 640 in the textbook has pictures of the WBC’s WBCs protect against diseases and are produced in response to hormones. Five types of white blood cells are in circulating blood and are distinguished by size, granular appearance of the cytoplasm, shape of the nucleus, and staining characteristics. WBC counts: Normally, a cubic milliliter of blood contains between 4,800 & _ 10,800 _ white blood cells. A positive chemotaxis ___ white blood cell count can help pinpoint the nature of an illness, indicating whether it is caused by bacteria or viruses.
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