been heading in a positive direction, but some new laws and ideologies gave the oppression of blacks a new and firm foothold. Slavery was tough to justify; but white Southerners managed to circumvent enacted racist laws or policies under a professed motive of self-defence against newlyfreed blacks. Since many white people lived in fear that the black people would revolt, fewer people than before, Northern as well as Southern, saw the act as immoral. The Birth of an Ideology The abolition of slavery may have meant the end of one aspect of racism but it was also, according to Christopher Luse (2007), the birth of another: the transformation of racism into an ideology. This transformation was looked upon by the federal authority as the answer to the radical demands of emancipation in the 1830s. The federal authority considered itself duty bound to defend slavery. The authorities needed a new way to legitimise racism. The solution came in the form of the science of ethnology, a sub-branch of anthropology. With the use of ethnology the authorities sought to use to establish their beliefs in “the inferiority of nonwhite people“. Racial science was not a new phenomenon but it was not until the outbreak of the Civil War that it developed into a major factor on the political and science scene. This development was the result of medical experiments on dead black soldiers during the war. This was morbidly ironic since these dead black soldiers had fought and died to preserve slavery. Even though ethnology was not used much in defence of slavery during the period in which Adventures of Huckleberry Finnis set, Twain includes it in the novel. He uses it to draw a parallel between the warped mindset and morals of contemporary society and that of the pre-bullum apologetics found at the time the novel is set.